Knowledge Of Sex Education In Reducing Intercourse Among Secondary School Students

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Knowledge Of Sex Education In Reducing Intercourse Among Secondary School Students


Abstract


This study was carried out to assess the knowledge of sex education in reducing intercourse among secondary school students in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students and teachers of selected secondary schoolsin Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students which includes: culture, lifestyles, ignorance, poverty, traditional believe, and peer influence.The study also reveals that the teaching of sex education significantly influences students indulgence in sexual practices. Further findings showed that the teaching of sex education significantly influences the prevalence of STD among secondary school students. Therefore, it is recommended that the education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences. School managements of secondary schools should periodically invite guest lecturers to give health talks to students outside the normal student learning process so as to increase the knowledge of sexuality health. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Based on the challenges facing the present generation of adolescents in Nigeria with regards to teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, rape, incest, illicit abortion and a host of others forms the bedrock for this research. The world has evolved and is in need of solution for these problems which sexuality education seeks to address.
A lot have been done with regards to sex education in Nigeria as seen by various studies. According to the Federal ministry of education (Nigeria), “sex education is a lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, value about one’s identity, relationship and intimacy which encompasses sexual development, reproductive health, interpersonal relationships, affection, intimacy, body images and gender roles”.

UNESCO (2009) puts sex education as an age-appropriate, culturally relevant approach to teaching about sex and relationships by providing scientifically relevant approach to teaching about sex and relationships by providing scientifically accurate, realistic, non-judgmental information. Over the years, the Nigerian curriculum has effected it in subjects like Basic Science, Physical and Health Education, Social Studies, etc., with its version of sexuality education called Family Life and HIV Education (FLHE) curriculum.

Historically, some aspects of sex education are first offered in the family before any other influential factors like peer group, society, media, school, etc., in form of stories, talks, literatures, warnings, etc. Due to the importance of sex education and the neglect of certain aspects, it is usually now preferred to be called Comprehensive Sex Education (CSE) which addresses biological, socio-cultural, psychological and spiritual dimensions of sexuality (Adrienne et al, 2007).

Various definitions have been given to sexuality over the years. Some regard sexuality only as sexual intercourse which is seen as a primitive view of it. National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms defines sex as a person’s behaviour, desires and attitudes related to sex and physical intimacy with others. WHO (2006) tows the same line by giving sex as a central aspect to being human which comprises sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. This goes to show that sexuality goes beyond sexual intercourse but comprises of our entirety as being sexual beings.

Sex is also seen by some others as a person’s sexual preference like homosexual, heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian, gay, etc. Sexuality is inborn and can be affected by factors like society, media, peer group, religion, family and school.
Weeks (2003), puts sex as the cultural way of living out our bodily pleasure. Ikpe (2004) gave sexuality as the very essence of one’s humanity including one’s self-image, being male or female, physical looks and reproductive capability, i.e. sexuality is a natural part of life. Sexuality gives rise to the need for sexuality education.

There is a perceived impact of sex education on the sexual behaviour of youths in Nigeria. Adolescents have been seen to make better choices with relation to their sexuality like abstinence, increased age of first intercourse, use of contraceptives, withstanding peer pressure, positive view of themselves, etc. (P.R.A., 2009). From the aforementioned, this study aims at assessing the impact of sex education on youths in Nigeria secondary schools.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The fact that the rate of sexually transmitted infections is on the increase in both adolescent males and females(Fanfair and Workowski, 2014) sends a signal that immediate and sustained intervention would be necessary to enhance the future health of the population and economic productivity. It is highly needful that a child receives sex education considering the fact that naivety can breed unwanted outcomes(Shashikumar et al, 2012). A systematic review study to evaluate the effectiveness of sex education intervention showed that sex education had a positive effect on adolescent sexual behaviour [Garzon-Orjuela, 2013].

Since the approval and introduction of sexuality education policy in Nigeria in 1999 with curriculum modification that teaches sexuality education (Shiffman, & Kunnu, 2012), the efficacy is with mixed results. Till date, there is increasing concern on high rates of adolescent pregnancies and spread of STDs and STIs [Garzon-Orjuela, 2013]. The fertility rate of 104 births per 1000 among Nigeria’s adolescents’ women aged 15–19 is one of the highest in the world [World Bank Group, 202]. This includes a galloping increase in STDs such as chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, some forms of hepatitis, syphilis, and trichomoniasis with HIV as the most prominent [World Bank Group, 2021]. At 2012, a study on adolescents in the secondary school has reported that 55.7% and 21.9% of boys and girls engaged in masturbation in the study location [Amoo, 2020]. A near recent study conducted by the Resource Centre for Adolescence Pregnancy Prevention (ReCAPP) reported that about half of adolescents engage in oral sex and one out of 10 adolescents practices anal sex. The recent trends have made the issues of early sexual debut worrisome in Nigeria and including other sub-Saharan African countries. Amoo (2020) reported men’s median age at first sex as 18 for Nigeria and Ethiopia and 16 for Zambia while adding that the median age at first marriage for women in Ghana, Kenya, and Zambia is relatively 17 [Amoo, 2017]. Similar report by Durowade et al.[2017] highlighted that the average age at first intercourse among adolescent as 15 years. In 2003, the Nigerian Association for the Promotion of Adolescent Health and Development (NAPAHD) informed the public that adolescents accounted for 80% of complications during abortion procedures. Considering the conspicuous risk of sexual behaviour and their outcomes among the adolescent gives doubt to the coverage and impacts of sex education in developing nations, especially in Nigeria where adolescents constitute relatively 22% of the population and the rising wave of STIs among them.

A study conducted in a state in Nigeria showed that less than a quarter of the respondents were exposed to sex education and over two-thirds of them have engaged in early sexual activity. With respect to the various reports of the adolescent sexual behaviour in Nigeria, there seems to be inadequate, inappropriate guidance, although colossal extinction of the 1999 sexuality education policy cannot be confirmed. Lack of education on sexual behavior among the adolescents or its ineffectiveness is inimical directly or indirectly to adolescent education, future engagement in economic activity, and their wellbeing and poverty or wealth level in the country. This study, therefore, aims to assess the impact of sex education among youths in Nigerian secondary schools.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically assess the knowledge of sex education in reducing intercourse among secondary school students in Nigerian secondary schools. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students.
  2. Find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools.
  3. Find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in sexual practices.
  4. Find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students.

1.4 Research Questions

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What are the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students?
  2. Is sex education effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools?
  3. Has the teaching of sex education significantly influenced students indulgence in sexual practices?
  4. Has the teaching of sex education significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H0: Sex education has no significant impact on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.
  • H1: Sex education has a significant impact on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It has been recorded that sexuality education influences sexual behaviour of students (Rice, 1995). The study was to investigate the claims of the perceived influence of sexuality education on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students ranging from delayed sex to positive self image. This claim leads the researcher to embark on this project.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of sex education among youths in Nigerian secondary schools.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the knowledge of sex education in reducing intercourse among secondary school students. The study will further identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students, find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools, find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in sexual practices, and find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Adolescent:

Transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period of puberty to legal adulthood.

Gender:

The categorizing of an individual as being male or female.

Sexual Behaviour:

These are actions that lead to reproduction and stimulation of sexual organs for satisfaction without conception.

Sexuality:

Integral part of who one is, believe, feel and response to others.

Sexuality Education:

The teaching and learning process that deals with sexuality.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the knowledge of sex education in reducing intercourse among secondary school students in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the the knowledge of sex education in reducing intercourse among secondary school students using selected secondary school in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to identify the factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students, find out if sex education is effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools, find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced students indulgence in sexual practices, and find out whether the teaching of sex education have significantly influenced the prevalence of STD among secondary school students. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are students and teachers of selected secondary schools in Arewa Dandi local government Area of Kebbi State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The factors influencing the sexual behavior of secondary school students includes: culture, lifestyles, ignorance, poverty and traditional believe, and peer influence.
  2. Sex education is not effectively taught in Nigerian secondary schools.
  3. The teaching of sex education significantly influences students indulgence in sexual practices.
  4. The teaching of sex education significantly influences the prevalence of STD among secondary school students.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences.
  2. School managements of secondary schools should periodically invite guest lecturers to give health talks to students outside the normal student learning process so as to increase the knowledge of sexuality health.
  3. Nollywood film producers and film writers should write and produce films and short plays on risky sexual behaviours and its effect to help sensitize the nation television viewers on risky sexual behaviours.
  4. Sexuality education must be treated with utmost relevance by all parties just like any other subject in order to keep on meeting its objectives and even exceed it.
  5. Trainings and workshops should be organized for teachers to help them to be adequately prepared to deliver quality sexuality education.

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