Causes And Effects Of Erectile Dysfunction Among The Youths

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Causes And Effects Of Erectile Dysfunction Among The Youths


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the causes and effects of erectile dysfunction among the youths using Ikorodu Lagos State as a case study. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among the youths, find out the level of youths’ knowledge of erectile dysfunction, find out the possible causes of erectile dysfunction among the youths, and find out the effect of erectile dysfunction on the sexual health of the youths. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of youths residents in Ikorodu Lagos State.In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction among the youths. Furthermore, the study revealed that the possible causes of erectile dysfunction among the youths include; heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, mental health concerns. Therefore, it is recommended that public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Erectile dysfunction (ED), as defined by the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine, is the consistent and recurrent inability to acquire or sustain an erection of sufficient rigidity and duration to engage in satisfactory sexual intercourse. Despite the relatively high prevalence of ED, our knowledge of this condition had remained limited until the 1970s (Krassas 2015). Since that time, advances in molecular biology techniques have drastically improved our understanding of penile physiology and the pathophysiology underlying ED. The process of achieving an erection involves coordination among psychological, neurological, and vascular pathways, which combine to facilitate a physiologic response in the penile vasculature. In response to parasympathetic signaling received from the pudendal and pelvic splanchnic nerve plexuses, the penile cavernosal tissue releases nitric oxide (NO) (Lambert, 1995). NO induces relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle through a cyclic guanosine monophosphateemediated decrease in intracellular calcium. Filling of the cavernosal sinusoids obstructs venous outflow from the penis by compression of the veins against the tunica albuginea, allowing for maintenance of an erection (Krassas 2015). The transient increase in cyclic guanosine monophosphate is terminated by phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). Detumescence is achieved by adrenergic receptor activation, which leads to rhythmic contraction of the cavernosal smooth muscle, pro- moting a decrease in arterial diameter and thereby inducing venous outflow. Given the complexity with which the psy- chological and physiologic pathways intersect, there are myriad ways in which they can become disrupted and cause ED in young men.

Historically, ED has been considered an age-dependent disease, with most men developing signs and symptoms of ED after 65 years of age. However, recent studies have demonstrated an increasing incidence of ED in men younger than 40 years, and this trend is likely underestimated because of under-reporting by younger patients. Until the 1970s, ED in men younger than 40 years was believed to be primarily of psychogenic origin (Lambert, 1995). As such, diagnostic evaluation of young men with ED before the 1970s consisted almost exclusively of obtaining a psychosexual history and offering treatments limited to behavioral therapy and herbal supplementation. Recent studies, which will be outlined further in the following sections of this review, have reported that as many as 87% of young men with ED also have an organic (vascular, neurologic, hormonal, fibroproliferative, or medication-induced) component to their condition (Ludwig, Phillips 2009).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

ED is an important health concern that significantly affects quality of life and can have a detrimental effect on a man’s psychosocial well-being. ED is one of the few disorders that will motivate young men to see an urologist; as such, there is a need for increased awareness among practitioners (Krassas 2015). Although advances in screening (ie, penile duplex ultrasound, endocrine evaluation, etc) and treatment (ie, oral pharmacotherapy, intracavernosal injection [ICI] therapy, and penile prosthesis) have improved ED detection and management, it is not uncommon for young men with sexual dysfunction to be dismissed without a proper workup for non-psychogenic etiologies (Ludwig, Phillips 2009).The goal of this review is to provide an update on available data regarding the causes and effects of erectile dysfunction among the youths. The researchers also aim to provide a framework to guide clinicians in identifying young men with ED and improving the management of this growing patient population


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main aim of this study is to examine the causes and effects of erectile dysfunction among the youths. Specific objectives of this study include:

  1. To determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among the youths.
  2. To find out the level of youths’ knowledge of erectile dysfunction.
  3. To find out the possible causes of erectile dysfunction among the youths.
  4. To find out the effect of erectile dysfunction on the sexual health of the youths.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among the youths?
  2. What is the level of youths’ knowledge of erectile dysfunction?
  3. What are the possible causes of erectile dysfunction among the youths?
  4. What is the effect of erectile dysfunction on the sexual health of the youths?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses will validate this study:

  • Ho: Erectile dysfunction has no effect on the sexual health of the youths.
  • Ha: Erectile dysfunction has an effect on the sexual health of the youths.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be greatly significant to the teeming youths as the findings of this study will prove beneficial and help bring a level of awareness about sexual health to the youths. This study will also serve as a reference point for further studies and future researches.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on the causes and effects of erectile dysfunction among the youths. Specifically, this study focuses on determining whether the youths are aware of erectile dysfunction, determining how prevalent erectile dysfunction is among the youths, etc.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Erectile dysfunction: Occurs when a man can’t get or keep an erection firm enough for sexual intercourse.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the causes and effects of erectile dysfunction among the youths using Ikorodu Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the causes and effects of erectile dysfunction among the youths using Ikorodu Lagos State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction among the youths, find out the level of youths’ knowledge of erectile dysfunction, find out the possible causes of erectile dysfunction among the youths, and find out the effect of erectile dysfunction on the sexual health of the youths.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents were youths residents in Ikorodu Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. There is a high prevalence of erectile dysfunction among the youths.
  2. The youths have adequate knowledge of erectile dysfunction.
  3. The possible causes of erectile dysfunction among the youths include; heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, mental health concerns.
  4. Erectile dysfunction has a negative effect on the sexual health of the youths.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Public health programs and clinicians should screen for and address sexual dysfunction, which substantially reduce youth sexual wellbeing.
  2. For treatment of ED in young men, oral PDE5 inhibitors such as sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil, and avanafil remain should be the first-line used oral agents as it it considered to have had very good success rates due to proven efficacy, good tolerability, and ease of administration, proven efficacy, good tolerability, and ease of administration.
  3. There is also need for therapies such as ICI, penile revascularization, inflatable penile prosthesis, hormonal supplementation, and SC therapies.

Get Complete Project Material

6,000 Naira

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦6,500 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($25)
FOR GHANIAN STUDENTS
Make Payment of 200 GHS to 0553978005 | Douglas Cloud Osabutey | MTN MoMo

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Causes And Effects Of Erectile Dysfunction Among The Youths

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content

samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.