An Analysis Of The Importance Of Sex Education In Secondary School Students In Oredo Local Government Area Of Edo State

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

An Analysis Of The Importance Of Sex Education In Secondary School Students In Oredo Local Government Area Of Edo State


Abstract


Adequate knowledge of adolescents about sexual issue will determine their behaviour concerning relationships and their personal sexual health. Inadequate knowledge and misconception of sexuality has been responsible for their risky sexual behaviours. This study therefore aimed at assessing the importance of sex education in secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The study adopted the quantitative descriptive survey method as the research design. For the purpose of this research, the random sampling technique was used to select 150 SS3 students in Senior Secondary Schools as the sample size. The instrument used was a self-developed questionnaire which the researcher distributed to collect and process the data for analysis using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. From the findings of the study, the students had very limited knowledge of sex education. No significant difference was observed between the male and female students from the different classes in the selected schools in their opinion on the teaching of sex education in the selected schools. Significant difference was not observed between the male and the female students on this role that sex education programme could play in promotion of sexual health. This limited knowledge of the students was attributed to the low awareness of sex education and the accompanied constraints of religious and parent’s cultural beliefs. It was recommended among others, that sex education must be treated with utmost relevance by all parties (teachers, students, parents, family, health professionals and society) just like any other subject in order to keep on meeting its objectives and promoting sexual and reproductive health. To that effect, trainings and workshops should be organized for teachers by health experts to help them to be adequately prepared to deliver quality sex education.


Table of Content


Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of Study
  • 1.8 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisation of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Sex Education and Sexual Health
  • 2.3 Theoretical Review
  • 2.4 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target Population
  • 3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validity of Instrument
  • 3.6 Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.7 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.8 Data Analysis

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

An important but most undermined phenomenon that has plagued for sex and sex education.

Numerous definitions and interpretations have been advanced by all faced of human society without excavating the eliminating problems associated with it.

In this chapter, the researcher intends to have an over view of the menologies associated with sex before dealing with the scope of this study.

The term sex gives beyond the realm of sex organs, instructions and act of sex organs as individuals are made to believe to make a breakthrough in the life of human relation among and between sex partners.

Sex education is the instruction about sex and human sexuality. Sex is an important effect on the human life of an individual and almost everyone in the society including children wants to know about it. Traditionally, children are not supposed to receive information about sex at all. They many a time, learn about sex through their friends, books, television, pornographic films either from the magazines or internets and sex movies.

Correct and factual information should be given to teenagers about the sudden development in their bodies. During this period, the girls develop breast, menstruation starts, pelvic borne broadens these starts at the age of eleven to twelve years and in the boys between fourteen to fifteen years. The sexual organs mature the widening of the chest and enlargement of the lynx which causes breaking of the voice.

The teen periods are very crucial in the life of the individual. Many distractions may occur during this stage such as school drop out, sexual immorality juvenile delinquency to mention but a few are all problems evolving from physical, social, cognitive and mental development. However, sex education has generally being masked in giggles and silent matters.

Children should be given adequate information’s about sex. Gone are the days when sexual matters were hidden from them.

Many school pupils in Nigeria suffer from insufficient sex education in their homes because parents are inadequate in this respect, school pupils have to rely on their friend’s initiative and whatever they can learn from their friends and their school masters. Thus hey undergo a great deal of emotional stress and strain caused by a variety of reasons chief which for the 12 plus groups, may be problems of ignorant about sex.

Questions posed by the teenagers should be answered by teachers as well as parents to open a wide range of the communication because silence or lie telling may cause injury as they assume that the information gathered from the peers, books or internet are true and also the answers should be contrary to those books and peers.

Sex desire can lead to sexual immorality which can result to pregnancy i.e. the process of procreation or reproduction most teenagers are physically able to have children but few are ready and responsibilities of marriage or parent hood most unmarried teenagers who do not have babies can be carried away by their sexual feelings and emotional desires. This can cause a serious sexual malady and the psychological problems for them. It can cause an abortion, sexual transmitted disease (STDS) like HIV/AIDS and so on. Sexual intercourse between two persons who are not married to each others is considered as a taboo to be generality of the society and morally wrong among religious groups.

Sex relationship outside marriage can result in quilts feelings and other psychological problems for persons involved. It can also cause birth of unwanted child.

Therefore sex education should be given at early development stage of the child because the foundation laid in the early life of the teenagers determines the stability and propensity of marriage life of an individual in the society.
The provision of sex education is important because the norms guiding sexual act has been broken down by the increasing urbanization and the modernization of social norms. Sex education through parents, teachers or counselors and educators will not certainly be universal remedy to the social ills, but it will provide information for improving behavior, establishing personality in our society. This should be made known to teenagers of both sexes.

Newton (2013) also stated that the lack of sexual education causes many adolescents to engage in a sexual relationship that not only affects interpersonal relationships but can also cause some sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ). These conditions can turn adolescents into carriers or lead to premature death. If the adolescent’s sexual activities are not controlled, it can also lead to pregnancies in immature girls, leading to vaginal fistulas (V.V.F.) (Abdullahi, 2013). Such victims may be expelled from school, which may end their school career, and most of them may be engaged in other social problems in society, such as drug abuse, drunkenness and theft, which are now social ills. Given these problems, the adolescent is experiencing as a result of inadequate sexual education (Abdullahi, 2013).

Onyebuchi (2012), cited by Njoku (2013), indicated that adolescents are likely to run serious social and health risks, including teenage pregnancies, abortions, sexually transmitted diseases, education disorders and social stigma. It seems that there is a clear need for sex education for adolescents to lead a modest, moderate and relatively safe sex life (Njoku, 2013). From this statement it is clear that sex education in secondary schools is inevitable to avoid the anxiety expressed in the previous discussion. This study therefore attempts to investigate such needs among adolescents by assessing the influence of sex education programme on promotion of sexual health among secondary school students.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Sex education has been a controversial and debatable topic some parents has avoided communication on giving information concerning this topic to their children. Information and education about sexuality are also limited in the field of formal education and almost do not exist in the family environment (Kumi-Kyereme, 2014). In Nigerian society, it is culturally undesirable to discuss sexuality and sexual problems with adolescents and adolescents (Kwankye, 2017). Parents have disabilities to talk with their children about reproductive health problems and sexuality. School curricula do not have space for adequate and complete sexual education, and religious institutions do not discuss this important issue with young people. Some providers of family planning services have not shown interest in providing reproductive health services to adolescents. Although sexual activity in adolescents is decreasing, they are not recommended to seek appropriate information about reproductive problems in adolescents.
In recent times the continued problems of sexual immorality among many of our adolescent (boys and girls) and sexual harassment by the adult have been an important issue of discussions. On this issue the society has neither to blamed the phenomenon on the schools that fails to provide adequate information on sex related issues on the other hand attributes causes of sexual moral, laxity to parents whose moral duty is to impact sex education to their children. The problem of this study is, does teaching of sex education have negative effects on the learners? The study seeks to carry out an analysis of the importance of sex education in secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State


1.3 Objectives Of the Study

The overall purpose of this study is to assess the importance of sex education in secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

The specific objectives are as follows;

  1. To ascertain the knowledge of sexual health among senior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area
  2. To determine if the sex education programmes offered in senior secondary schools curriculum provide adequate information about sexual health
  3. To determine the importance of sex education on sexual behavior of senior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area

1.4 Research Questions

The research questions are formulated based on the objectives and statement of problem to include;

  1. What is the knowledge of sexual health among senior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area?
  2. Does sex education programmes offered in senior secondary schools curriculum provide adequate information about sexual health?
  3. What is the importance of sex education on sexual behavior of senior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • HO1: Sex education programmes does not significantly influence promotion of sexual health among senior secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area
  • HA1: Sex education programmes significantly influences promotion of sexual health among senior secondary school studentsin Oredo Local Government Area

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of great importance and relevance to the students, the teachers, and to school administrators as well as the community at large. The knowledge of sex education will minimize the problems and improve interpersonal relationship between sexes. It would improve state of womanhood, manhood and family life and would reduce the area of sexual impropriety. Also, the student’s option about sex education will inform the curriculums designers to design a curriculum that can be viewed as appropriate by the beneficiaries. The study is to a certain extent widen the teachers horizon in handling the problem associated with adolescent sexual problems and will also help teenagers know more about the physical changes and development that occurs during this period. It will also encourage the pursuit of optimum sexual health among students and adolescents, by reason of the sex education programme. Finally, information gathered from this study will serve as a source of literature and guide for future research and as well serve as empirical reference for further studies.


1.7 Scope of Study

The focus of this study is to assess the importance of sex education in secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. Oredo Local Government Area town will be used as the study area, and senior secondary school students as the respondents for data collection and analysis. Variables considered include knowledge of sexual health among senior secondary school students, sex education programmes offered in senior secondary schools curriculum, and importance of sex education on sexual behavior of senior secondary school students.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

The limitation of the study is that it only catered for senior secondary students (SS3) students in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo state, Nigeria. It would be difficult to capture variables relating to sex education programme among student population in secondary schools and younger age ranges/groups beyond the state.


1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Importance:

The process of producing effect on the actions, behaviours, opinions etc. of another. In this study, it is the state or fact of sex education being of great significance or value to secondary school students.

Sex:

The act of sexual intercourse

Sexual Health:

This is physical, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality

Sex Education:

Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding it is broken down as follows:

  • Chapter one kicks off with the introduction, which consists of the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research hypothesis, scope and significance of the study.
  • Chapter two begins with the conceptual framework on which the study is based, the theoretical literatures and also the empirical literature and thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design, the population of the state used as a case study, the sample size and the sampling techniques used, the data collected, data analysis and the limitations of the method used.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis, interpretation and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The aim of this study was to assess the importance of sex education in secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The findings of this study affirm previous research works that the sex education is a positioned medium to promote sexual health and behaviours among adolescents and youths. Sex education enables students to make well informed decisions with regards to their sexual and reproductive health, and in turn their mental and psychological health and development. The study however, showed gaps in proper knowledge sources and unhealthy sexual behaviours affecting the students’ psychological development, and affecting their academic and social development too. This calls the need of health experts and stakeholders, in health education and awareness programmes to promote positive behaviors and encourage total abstinence among students. Also, there is need to constantly encourage strict adherence and adoption of control measures and healthy behavior (abstinence) in order to bridge the gap, and dissuade adverse behaviours and health effects among students and the society in general. Special retraining and sensitization for teachers on health implications of sex education on the students’ health and social development, is also imperative by health professionals in order to bridge the gap.


5.2 Conclusion

This study presented the importance of sex education in secondary school students in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The analysis of the data collected in relation to the subject revealed the following; the students have very limited knowledge of sex education. Among the constraints encouraging this limited knowledge were religious restriction, cultural belief and parents’ attitudes towards issues pertaining to sexual matters. No significant difference was observed between the male and female students from the different classes in the selected schools in their opinion on the teaching of sex education in the selected schools. Though the students did not really have adequate knowledge of the subject, they were in favour of its inclusion into the secondary school curriculum in the state. Significant difference was not observed between the male and the female students on this role that sex education programme could play in promotion of sexual health. This limited knowledge of the students was attributed to the low awareness of sex education and the accompanied constraints of religious and parent’s cultural beliefs.


5.3 Recommendation

Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. Sex education must be treated with utmost relevance by all parties just like any other subject in order to keep on meeting its objectives and even exceed it. To that effect, trainings and workshops should be organized for teachers by health experts to help them to be adequately prepared to deliver quality sex education programme.
  2. Parents should be sensitized about the whole question of adolescents’ sexuality so that they can be more involved in teaching them about the same. This would foster not just proper sexual and reproductive health but healthy mindset, esteem and psychological development.
  3. More research should be conducted to assess and evaluate the impact and nature of sex education on sexual behaviour and reproductive health knowledge among youths and adolescents across the secondary and tertiary levels of study in Nigeria.

An Analysis Of The Importance Of Sex Education In Secondary School Students In Oredo Local Government Area Of Edo State


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