Nutritional Knowledge On The Health Of Pregnant Women In Kofai Ardo-Kala Local Government Area, Taraba State
Proper food and good nutrition are essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance and productivity, health and well-being especially for women during pregnancy. The main aim of this study is to determine the nutritional knowledge on the health of pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State. This study adopted a non-experimental descriptive design. 130 expectant mothers were selected for the study and a self-designed questionnaire was used as the instrument for eliciting data from the respondents. The data were descriptively summarized with the use of frequency, percentages and tables. The study revealed an overall nutritional knowledge level of 77.2% which was high and an overall nutritional practice level of 66.9% which was above average but not satisfactory. Factors influencing good nutrition among pregnant women included access to nutrition information, interaction with health professional, socio-economic status, educational status, and experience from previous delivery. Furthermore, the strategies that should be put in place to ensure awareness of good nutrition during pregnancy for expectant mothers included providing access to nutrition information; nutrition counseling during pregnancy; encouraging personal accountability goals; promoting a healthy diet and consistent use of micronutrient supplement; and promoting adequate weight gain. The study concluded that that good knowledge, nutrition education about basic nutrients and balanced diet usually result in positive dietary practices which are important determinants of optimum health. It recommended that government in collaboration with health professionals and bodies should focus on nutritional education and information about nutrition to increase the knowledge of pregnant mothers on nutrition and put in practice during pregnancy
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Nutrition Knowledge and Practices Among Pregnant Women
- 2.3 Theoretical Review
- 2.4 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Target Population
- 3.3 Sample Size
- 3.4 Instruments for Data Collection
- 3.5 Method of Data Collection
- 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
All human beings need a balanced amount of nutrients for proper functioning of the body system. Nutrition is a fundamental pillar of human life, health and development throughout the entire life span (Daba, Beyene, Fekadu&Geroma, 2013). Proper food and good nutrition are essential for survival, physical growth, mental development, performance and productivity, health and wellbeing. However, the nutrition requirement varies with respect to age, gender and during physiological changes such as pregnancy. Pregnancy is such a critical phase in a woman’s life, when the expecting mother needs optimal nutrients of superior qualities to support the developing fetus. Naturally, the urge to eat more is experienced by nearly all pregnant women. Pregnancy is considered a delightful experience for the expectant mother. Evidences manifested that adequate intake of nutrition is a key component for individual’s health and particularly during pregnancy. Nutrition is a central element of human life that is required for health and development (World Bank, 2016). Nutrition during pregnancy has a major impact on the outcome of pregnancy and accredited as an important determinant for a healthy and successful pregnancy including the life- long health of future generation (Adikari, Sivakanesan, Wijesinghe & Liyanage, 2016). Particularly, adequate nutritional intake during and after pregnancy is important for health and well being of the mother, as well as the child (Bawadia, Al- Kuranb, Al- Bastonia, Tayyemia & Jaradatd, 2010). Unfortunately, rate of dietary inadequacies is reported to be higher during pregnancy than at any other stage of the life cycle (Rao, Sahoo & Basumati, 2010).
According to the (World Health Organization (WHO), 2014), many women do not get enough micronutrients in their diets during their reproductive age as well as during pregnancy. They are also unaware of how much their nutritional status impact their pregnancy and infant outcomes. In Nigeria, women are usually responsible for preparing food for the household, so their knowledge of good nutrition or lack of it can affect the health and nutritional status of the entire family. Studies from Nigeria have revealed a high prevalence of both under nutrition and over nutrition, as well as deficiencies including iron, folate, vitamin D and vitamin A (Senbanjo, Olayiwola, Afolabi &Senbanjo, 2013). According to (Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2013), the 11% of women of reproductive age are thin or undernourished (BMI less than 18.5kg/m^2), 17% of women are overweight (BMI of 25-29kg/m^2), and 8% are obese (BMI of 30kg/m^2 or above). Consequently, Obstetric complications such as hypertension, anaemia, neural tube defects, night blindness, low birth weight and maternal and perinatal mortality are common.
It has been Opined that eating well during pregnancy means do more than simply increase how much the mother eats, the mother must also consider what she eats The ability of the mother to provide nutrients and oxygen for her baby is a critical factor for feta health and its survival. Maternal over-nutrition also has long- lasting and detrimental effects on the health of the baby. Undernourished mothers face greater risks during pregnancy and childbirth and their children set off on a weaker developmental path, both physically and mentally. Undernourished children have lower resistance to infection and more likely to die from common childhood ailments as diarrheal diseases and respiratory infections. Several studies have indicated that the correlation between poor maternal nutritional status and adverse birth outcomes is complex and are influenced by many biologic, socio- economic and demographic factors which vary widely in different population. Nutritional knowledge and attitude are important factors of dietary practices and are thus potential targets for appropriate panning of nutrition interventions for vulnerable population groups like those lactating and women that are pregnant (Popa, Nita, Graur, Popescu, Botnariu&Mohalache, 2013). Therefore, in this study, the aim is to access the level of maternal knowledge and attitude towards good nutrition during pregnancy.
1.2 Statement of Problem
According to United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF, 2013), each year more than half a million women die from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Nearly 4 million newborns die within 28days of birth. Many of the 200 million women also become pregnant each year, most of them in developing countries suffer from ongoing nutritional deficiencies repeated infections and the long-term cumulative consequences of under nutrition during their own childhood years. Many women suffer from a combination of chronic energy deficiency, poor weight gain in pregnancy, anaemia and other micronutrient efficiencies, as well as infections like HIV and malaria. Poor nutrition diminishes a woman’s productivity causing repercussions for herself, family, her community and the broader society. Maternal malnutrition is influenced not only by lack of adequate nutrition but also influenced by factors like socio- demographic factors, cultural factors and also nutritional knowledge of mothers during pregnancies. It is on this ground that this research work investigates into the nutritional knowledge on the health of pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the nutritional knowledge on the health of pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State. Specifically, it will consider the following objectives;
- To ascertain the level of nutritional knowledge possessed by pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State.
- To determine the level of nutritional practice of those pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State.
- To determine the factors influencing good nutrition in pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State.
- To identify the strategies to ensure good nutrition during pregnancy for expectant mothers.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions are formulated based on the objectives and statement of problem to include;
- What are the levels of nutritional knowledge of sources of food substances possessed by the pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State?
- What are the levels of nutritional practices of those pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State?
- What are the factors influencing good nutrition among pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State?
- What strategies should be put in place to ensure awareness of good nutrition during pregnancy for expectant mothers?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no relationship between level of nutritional knowledge health of pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State
- HA1: There is a relationship between level of nutritional knowledge health of pregnant women in KofaiArdo-kala Local Government Area, Taraba State
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is expected to assess the levels of knowledge and the practices of nutrition in pregnancy among expectant mothers. The result of this study will serve as a source of information to pregnant women on the type of food to eat during pregnancy and the overall improvement of their health status of the community and life-long health of future generations. This study will also provide useful information for midwives and healthcare providers on how to educate women of reproductive age on the type of food they should consume during pregnancy. To the government, ministries of health and education, this study will help the planners to know the state of knowledge of these women and make preparations for enlightening them and to fellow researchers this study will form a baseline for their own study.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Is the awareness and understanding that one has gained on nutrition
This is the act of doing something regularly to become better at it such as things you do as regards to eating
This means considering balance, variety and moderation in everything you eat
The state of carrying a developing embryo or fetus within the female body
Women who are pregnant
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
From the present study, it can be concluded that, majority of the expectant mothers (77.2%) had a good level of nutritional knowledge while (66.9%) had a level of nutritional practices during pregnancy. They lacked the basic and the essential practice to consume vegetables, fruits, egg and others which are the basic sources of most of the types of vitamins and minerals. Moreover, unhealthy food practice was observed among them. The current study also showed that, the most significant factors influencing good nutrition among pregnant womenwere shown to include access to nutrition information (72.0%), interaction with health professional (75.8%), socio-economic status (87.5%), educational status (75.1%), and experience from previous delivery (81%). Therefore it is obvious that good knowledge, nutrition education about basic nutrients and balanced diet usually result in positive dietary practices which are important determinants of optimum health from conception until death.
- The government in collaboration with health professionals and bodies should focus on nutritional education and information about nutrition to increase the knowledge of pregnant mothers on nutrition and put in practice during pregnancy.
- Health authorities should formulate policies, nutritional programmes and educational guidelines which will be beneficial in improving first time mothers’ knowledge regarding different aspects of antenatal period that could have a positive impact on the health and nutrition of both the mother and the child.
- There is a need for continued training to health workers on nutrition issues among pregnant mothers so as to help the mothers improve their care practices and also promote personal interactions in case of misunderstandings or misconceptions related to pregnancy and nutrition.
Nutritional Knowledge On The Health Of Pregnant Women In Kofai Ardo-Kala Local Government Area, Taraba State
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