Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Contraception By Female Junior Secondary School Students

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Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Contraception By Female Junior Secondary School Students

Chapter One


1.1 Background Of The Study

Unintended pregnancies that result in abortions and a slew of abortion-related consequences have become a serious reproductive and public health issue across the world. Millions of women throughout the world are affected by this problem, which is one of the primary causes of maternal illness and death.

According to the World Health Organization (2017), around 16 million girls between the ages of 15 and 19 and one million girls under the age of 15 give birth each year, while about three million girls between the ages of 15 and 19 have an unsafe abortion each year. Furthermore, roughly 75 million of the world’s projected 180-200 million births are unplanned, with the majority of these conceptions occurring in teens (UNDP et al 2003). Every year, 56 million induced abortions are performed across the world (WHO 2017). Unfortunately, an estimated 2.2 million unwanted pregnancies occur each year among teenagers in Sub-Saharan Africa, and about 60% of unsafe abortions in Africa are performed on women aged 15 to 24. (WHO 2005).Despite various attempts by governmental and non-governmental organizations, Nigeria’s reproductive health indicators remain alarming. Only 10% of presently married young women in Nigeria use contemporary contraceptive techniques, according to the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NPC 2013). This might explain why Nigeria was one of the nations that failed to fulfill the Millennium Development Goals, with a maternal mortality rate of 576 deaths per 100,000 live births, according to the report. The majority of Nigerian research on family planning has found that secondary school students have a good level of contraceptive awareness. Despite their high sexual behaviors, however, the prevalence of contraception use among this population has remained alarmingly low.

According to Chima et al, 67.5 percent of secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria, had a good understanding of family planning, but only 31.1 percent of sexually active respondents had ever used any type of family planning.

In 2011, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) together produced a guideline to avoid early births, including boosting teen contraceptive usage as one of the primary recommendations. As a result, the purpose of this study is to analyze female junior secondary school students in Ogbomoso’s knowledge, attitude, and use of contraceptives. The study focused on female junior secondary school students. This is because the majority of students in this group have been demonstrated to participate in risky sex behaviors, making them more vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions (EO Orji, OA Esimai 2005).

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Most in-school female students have been observed engaging in unsafe sex practices, increasing their vulnerability to undesired pregnancies and unsafe abortions (Osakinle, E.O. 2003). Unplanned births among students continue to rise year after year across the world due to a lack of contraception use. The failure to use contraceptives is linked to a lack of understanding of their availability and practices (Marquess, T.) (2019). Academic institutions across the globe, including Nigeria, face several issues as a result of the high number of unintended births. These issues include high student dropout rates, significant financial losses for academic institutions, and a greater strain on public finances (Makinwa, A. P. 1992). As a result, the purpose of this study is to determine the degree of female students’ contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and practices among junior secondary students.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The basic objective of this study is to examine the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among junior secondary school students. Therefore, the specific objectives include;

  1. Determine if junior secondary school students have adequate knowledge of the use of contraception.
  2. Determine junior students’ attitude towards the use of contraceptives.
  3. Determine the effect of the use of contraceptives on unintended pregnancy.

1.4 Research Questions

This research will be guided by the following questions:

  1. Do junior secondary school students have adequate knowledge on the use of contraception?
  2. Is junior students reluctant and hostile towards the use of contraceptives?
  3. Does contraceptives have any effect on unintended pregnancy?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

This study will provide useful information that would help policy makers to revamp family planning services for in-school students in Nigeria. Theoretically, this study will assist the students in understanding the extent and consequences of ineffective use of contraceptives.

The knowledge that will be obtained from this study is intended to create public awareness of the importance and proper use of contraceptive methods. However, feasible policy strategies that are going to enhance or address students’ sexual and reproductive health are likely to emanate from the study and will aid young people and society at large, with the use of effective family planning methods.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This study examines the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among junior secondary school students in Ogbomoso. Hence, the study is delimited to selected secondary schools in Ogbomoso, Oyo State.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

The major constrain of this study includes the language barriers, attitude of the respondents, financial constrains and time factors as the researcher had a little time frame to carry out this study.

1.8 Definitions Of Terms


In this study, adolescents refer to a distinct group in terms of their health needs and opportunities to reach them with preventive health programs. According to World Health Organization, adolescents are defined as those aged between 10 and 19 years of age.


It refers to artificial methods/techniques for prevent pregnancy through temporal or permanent means. Pernoll (1994) stated that contraception is practiced for many reasons, such as pregnancy planning, limiting the number of children, avoiding medical risks of pregnancy and controlling of world population.

Contraceptive Methods:

It refers to artificial device use for prevention of individual from both pregnancy and HIV/STIs.

Unsafe Sex:

This is the practice of sexual activities that carry a higher risk of negative consequences. In this work, it is activities that involve exchange or contact with semen, vaginal fluids, penile or vaginal discharges, or bloods at high risk.

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Frequently Asked Questions

What do we know about contraception use among young females?

Globally, several studies have reported on the knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the use of contraception among various groups of students [10-14] but little is known about the current knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the use of contraception among young females in this study setting.

Do female undergraduate students know about contraception and emergency contraception?

Female undergraduate students in this study are aware and have knowledge of contraception; however, their utilization of contraception and emergency contraception is relatively low. Establishing user-friendly reproductive and sexual health services will help improve student uptake of contraception methods.

What is the difference between good and bad knowledge of contraception?

If a participant mentioned none or only one correct method of contraception, she was regarded as having poor knowledge, whereas good knowledge was when a participant mentioned two or more correct methods.

What are the variables that influence contraceptive use?

Dependent variables included knowledge, attitude, and practice of contraception, whereas independent variables were age, year of study, marital status, program of study, and source of information about contraception. Statistical analyses were done using Epi-Info version (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA).ย 

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