Factors Responsible For Sexual Abuse As Expressed By Students Of Federal College Of Education, Osiele Abeokuta, Nigeria
Sexual abuse, which may take different forms, has become a major factor causing multiple problems ranging from social, physical, emotional to health related conditions. Many victims have died in the process while others had developed impaired social relationship. Upon this backdrop, this study investigated the factors responsible for sexual abuse as expressed by students of Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State.
The simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting the 300 respondents that participated in the study. The instrument used to gather information for the study was a questionnaire tagged “Factors Responsible for Sexual Abuse Questionnaire (FRSAQ)”. It consisted of two sections. (A and B) Section A contains items on personal information of respondents while Section B has 20 items on factors responsible for sexual Abuse.
Four null hypotheses were formulated for the study while the data collected were analysed using frequency counts percentages, test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics, all hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results obtained revealed that sexual abuse occurs because of indiscriminate view of pornographic video and print materials. Indecent dressing is the highest categorized factor that causes sexual abuse. Out of the four hypotheses only one was rejected; thus, gender, religion and age did not influence the expression of the respondents. However, students from different levels are significantly different in their expression.
Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that emphasis should be placed on sex education. Also, various agencies professional bodies, civil society organizations, religions groups and government should actively participate in the campaign against sexual abuse. Counsellors, especially, should also be fully engaged in the strategies to eradicate sexual abuse.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of Contents
- List of Tables
- Background to the Study
- Statement of the Problem
- Research Questions
- Research Hypotheses
- Purpose of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Scope of the Study
- Operational Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- Concept of Adolescent
- History and Concept of Sexual Abuse
- Factors Responsible for Perpetration of Sexual Abuse
- Effect of Sexual Abuse
- Management of Sexual Abuse
- Summary of the Review of Literature
- Research Design
- Sample and Sampling Procedure/Technique
- Psychometric Property of the Instrument
- Reliability of the Instrument
- Procedure for Data Administration and Collection
- Method of Data Analysis
- Demographic Data
- Hypotheses Testing
- Summary of Findings
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
- Suggestions for Further Research
List of Tables
- Table 1: Distribution of Respondents by Gender
- Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Religion
- Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by Study Level
- Table 4: Distribution of Respondents by Study Level
- Table 5: Item ranking of responses on factors responsible for sexual abuse
- Table 6: Respondents Perception According to the Factor
- Table 7: Mean Standard Deviations and t-values of Respondents expression of the Factors Responsible for Sexual Abuse on the basis of Gender
- Table 8: Mean, Standard Deviation and t-values of Respondents expression of the factors Responsible for Sexual Abuse on the Basis of Religion
- Table 9: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Comparing Responses on the basis of Class Level
- Table 10: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Comparing Responses on the basis of age
Background to the Study
The role of women is crucial to the growth and development of any nation and the world in general. Considering the importance of women as mothers’ breadwinners, teachers, guardians and motherhood in the family, the one will agreed that they deserve respect, recognition and better treatment. However, the opposite is usually the case. Women are enslaved in a rentless circle of poverty and suffer from neglect, discrimination and exploitation. They are also subjected to different forms of violence by their male counter-parts (Davies, 1989).
Adeoye (1996) defined violence as the use of force or subtle pressure and unrestrained action in the pursuance of an objective. He noted that the Nigerian newspapers are replete with news of violence has not excluded women in the smallest measure.
The various forms of violence against women include wife bothering, rape, denial of self expression, female child labour, childhood marriage, female circumcision, sexual abuse, sexual harassment, and exploitation, violence by law enforcement agents, negative cultural attitude and degrading traditional practice. The widow rites and nutritional taboos and denial of female education are also form of violence against women.
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for children and families (1998), most Americans understand, but not condone, how some forms of sexual abuse occur, it appears almost impossible for them to consent to the idea of sexual abuse. This is particularly true when the abuser is a parent or family member. Sexual abuse fuses those areas in which most people still experience discomfort, sexuality, power, gender domination and the horrific exploitation of an innocent child. Sexual molestation, like so many forms of abuse, wound, not only its victim but the significant others around her. It cuts-through families and communities, destroying trusts and the belief that some things simply do not happen in an enlightened society.
From a general view, one in every four women may experience sexual violence or rape by an intimate partner. According to Dickson (1998), close to one-third of adolescent girls reported their first sexual experience as being forced; result of sexual abuse. Rape is an unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman or girl without her consent or by force or with consent by means of threats or intimidation of any kind; it could be by fear of harm or false and fraudulent representation (Esen, 1989).
According to Ndagunu (2002), rape is an attempt to lure, coerce or force the opposite sex into sexual relationship through the use of threats. Therefore, rape is most commonly understood to mean forcing a woman to have sex against her wishes by using physical or psychological force, threat or force, drugs deception, or any combination of these. Human are naturally endowed with sexual instinct, thus, they want to exhibit sexual behaviour in different ways if not controlled.
According to Esen (1989), rape is one of the violence crimes which subject its victims to physical, emotional and psychological trauma. It is associated with an increased risk of large range of sexual and reproductive health problems, with both immediate and long–term consequences. In Nigerian context, rape is viewed under the criminal justice and public order Act 1994 as a sexual intercourse with a man or a woman without his or her consent. Rape can also affect the social well-being of victims because individuals may be ostracized and stigmatized by their families or other as consequences.
By and large, irrespective of gender, age, social class, ethnic background, sexual orientation, there was a general consensus as to what constitute a general definition of rape. This definition was firmly focused around the question of consent and applied irrespective of whether subject was female rape or male rape. The only perceived difference between men and women as victim was that it was assumed that man stood a better chance of depending themselves against an assailant.
The current sentencing guidelines for rape states that when an adult commits rape without any aggravating or mitigating features is not less than five years imprisonment. Where rape is committed by two men acting together, or by a man who has broken into or otherwise gained access to a place where the victim is living, or by a person who is in a position of responsibility towards the victim, or by a person who abducts the victims and holds her captive, the appropriate sentence is not less than eight years imprisonment. But if such crime is committed a number of times on different women or girls, a sentence of 15 years imprisonment or more may be appropriate sexual abuse is a form of violence, which is most rampart to woman and children, is an attempt to coerce an unwilling person to unwanted sexual attention (Brande Burg, 1982). It is the behaviour of individuals who use their powers and position in an organization to exert sexual gratification from their subordinates.
The Australian Institute of Health and welfare provides a useful national definition of sexual abuse. Sexual abuse is any act which exposes a person to or involves an individual in sexual processes beyond his or her understanding or contrary to accepted community standards. (Augus and Woodward, 1995).
Sexual abuse is a sexual act imposed on a victim who lacks emotional, maturational and cognitive development. Authority and power enable the perpetrator, implicitly or directly, to coerce the child into sexual compliance. The ability to lure a woman into sexual relationship is based upon the all powerful and dominant position of the men or older adolescent perpetrator, which is sharp contrast to the victims age, dependency and subordinate position .The abuse can be intra-familial, between a woman close family friends or extra-familial and some one out side the close family unit (Unitarian-Universalist Association, 2005 ).
Gibbs and Bathrope (1982) noted that male harassment of female is the most common type of sexual abuse because in most organizational setting majority of the bosses are men and they lure their subordinates which most times leads to rape and this therefore, result in physical and psychological periods to the victims. Danes (1989) observed that sexual abuse is a global problem that can no longer be ignored or permitted to remain hidden. He noted that victims do not acknowledge such violence when it occurs to them. They also perpetuate such violence by remaining silent, excusing violence or blaming them selves.
Both women and men may experience sexual harassment, but most targets are women. It is important to under stand that there is a pervasive belief that woman create their own sexual problems, because “blaming the victim” is a very strong part of our culture’s gender–role ideology. Also, perpetrators often don’t believe that the target reaction is extreme. Most women and men try to deal with sexual harassment by ignoring it, (Powell, 1991).
But this is seldom effective and can lead to an escalation. Women with higher self-esteem deal with the assertively.
Violence against women also depletes women’s energy and their self-esteem. It is a risk for all children especially girls who grow up with a sense of such vulnerability (Davies, 1989). Sexual abuse has its effect not holy on the negative but also on the children. In view of the negative impact of sexual abuse on the physical, emotional and psychological wellbeing of woman children and individuals in general.
The researcher therefore set out to investigate the factors responsible for sexual abuse as perceived by students of Federal College of Education, Ogun State. The study is based on the assumption that majority of the students from federal college of Education, Ogun State are young adolescents whose expressions may adequately represent the most vulnerable group. These students could have experienced sexual abuse, either directly or otherwise. This therefore qualifies them to be able to give useful information (expression) on the factors responsible for sexual abuse. Livingstone (1982) noted that the effectiveness of any remedial action depends on the extent to which the causal factors of the problem are identified. Hence it is within the purfew of this study that solution will be recommended in order to reduce the menace.
Statement of the Problem
According to Fontana (1981), sexual abuse appears to be increasing and has become a major health problem sexual abuse is a problem in our society today because it has caused a lot of harm to the victims both young and old. It has psychological effect on the victims. It has also become a problem in the sense that victims suffer serious physical injuries which are inflicted upon them by the perpetrators. In recent years tertiary institutions could not so much play their traditional roles as citadel of knowledge but only a place of evil deeds, of crimes and crises that have bedeviled the campuses especially the act of sexual abuse (Nosike, 1990).
Sexual abuse has been further classified by practitioners as sexual exploitation, which involves touching the victim and or compelling him/her to observe or be involved in other sexual activity (for example watching pornographic videos, sexual assault, molestation, victimization and rape.
Finkelha (1984) underscored that women become victims of sexual abuse as a result of their fragility and relationship with abuser. He further estimated that the proportion of persons in the United States that were exposed to some form of sexual abuse was between 9 and 52 percent for females and between 3 and 9 percent for male.
Sexual abuse has been documented as a menace involving women of all ages and status but it is also clear that majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are men and that the victims are predominantly female (Fonkellor, 1984).
A multi-centre study, led by Trowell and Kolvin (1999), from the Tavistock clinic London, was set up to evaluate the use of psychotherapy with girls aged 65 – 14 years who had been sexually abused. The key findings were as follows: sexually abused girls who had problems were more affected psychologically, socially and educationally than previously recognized. There was evidence of post traumatic stress disorder, depression and separation anxiety. Many of the older women had experienced physical or sexual abuse in their own childhood. Sexual abuse has some long term implications for mental health and this include; psychological symptoms, guilt, low self-esteem, sleep disturbance. Problem behaviour such as self harm and drug abuse, relationship and sexual problems are resultant effects of sexual abuse.
The available, police data for instance, are often in complete and limited. Many women do not report incidences of sexual abuse to the police because they are ashamed, or fear or being blamed, not believed, or otherwise mistreated. The question that often agitates minds of many educationists, school authorities, sociologists, psychological parents is that, why do people commit sexual abuse? What are the factors responsible for sexual abuse?
The present research therefore was interested in finding out the factors that are responsible for the act of sexual abuse. This study becomes imperative because. To the best of the researcher’s knowledge, no previous study has considered the issue, especially in relation to students of Federal College of Education, Ogun State.
This research work intends to investigate the factors responsible for sexual abuse as expressed by students of Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State. Therefore, the following research questions will be answered in this study:
- What are the factors responsible for sexual abuse as expressed by students of Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State?
- Is there any difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among male and female respondents?
- Is there any difference in the expression of factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of religion?
- Is there any difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of study level?
- Is there any difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of age?
The following research hypotheses are formulated for testing in the study:
- There is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among male and female students of College of Education, Abeokuta.
- There is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among students who are Christians and their Muslim counterparts.
- There is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of study level.
- There is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of age.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to find out the factors responsible for sexual abuse as expressed students of Federal College of Education, Ogun State.
This was done by using a questionnaire titled “Factors responsible for sexual abuse questionnaire”. It was administered to 200 respondents (students) of College of Education, Ogun State. The questionnaire is geared towards gathering relevant data that will help the investigation to get an idea of the analysis. The study equally provided suggestions that would help to significantly reduce sexual abuse.
Significance of the Study
One of the most popular social problems plaguing the Nigerian society today is sexual abuse. This problem has become public focus because of the seriousness and the seemingly wide spread nature of the problem as well as the increased attention given to it by the media. This problem therefore, calls for urgent solution since a society succeeds or fails in direct proportion to the way it enhances or impedes the development of its women.
The study therefore could be of help to the government, social welfare, workers, parents, educationists, legal practitioners, counsellors and the medical personnel in doing their various jobs. The study could serve as an eye opener to parents who are ignorant of their parental role towards their children.
The study could help the government to be aware of the factors that could be responsible for the problem of sexual abuse. The knowledge of this will help the government in setting up more centers and social welfare where the personnel can under go training so that they can be of assistance to both parents and children alike.
The study could also help the counsellor in the school to understand the child’s problem with regards to their relationship with their parents and to be able to allow the counsellors organize for individual or group counseling with those that have similar problems. Counsellors can also organize seminars specifically on factors responsible for the social ill. The study is also significant for the purpose of information dissemination, it would provide educational planners, teachers, parents and students in general about how sexual abuse can be minimized and at the same time male recommendations about how abusive and non-abusive parent would help their children, thereby brightening the future of the little ones on whom the future progress of the country lies.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this study was limited to finding out factors responsible for sexual abuse as expressed by students of College of Education, Ogun State. The researchers choose the respondents because they are mostly youths who know much about social issues. Therefore, their expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse is very important. The study considered variables such as gender, age, religion, and study level.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are the operational definition of some terms as they are used in this research.
This refers to as the adverse effect or inconvenient result of a particular action or situation.
This is the ability to see, hear, understand or a way an individual’s interprets what he/she feels, have insight into or aware of concerning sexual abuse.
A perpetrator is someone who has committed a crime, or a violent or harmful act (such as rape or sexual abuse).
It is an act of have sex within unwilling partner that is, using violence or threat.
It is an act of having sex with a child or old person or someone who is mentally ill, against their wishes or without their agreement.
Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter focuses on a general discussion of findings of this study. It also presents the conclusion, recommendations and suggestion for further research. The study was designed to find out the factors responsible for sexual abused is expressed by students of College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State. To achieve this, a questionnaire tagged ‘factors Responsible for Sexual Abuse Questionnaire” (FRSAQ) was designed in other to determined he expressed factors responsible for sexual abuse and four hypotheses were formulated and tested.
The researcher also found out whether or not there was any significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse by students of College of Education, Abeokuta on the basis of Gender, Religion, Level, and Age of the respondents.
The results of the study are discussed based on the distribution of respondents by Gender, religion, level and age. Distribution of respondents according to sex indicates that each gender had frequency of 84 respondents for males with a percentage of 42.0% and 116 female respondents with 58.0%. The age distribution indicates that 22 or 11.0% respondents are in the age bracket of 16 – 20 years 95 or 47.5% respondents are in the age bracket 21 – 25 years while 83 or 41.5% respondents are in the age bracket of 26 years and above.
Distribution of respondents by religion indicates that 140 respondents with a frequency percentage of 70.0% are Christians, while 60 respondents representing 30.0% of the total sample are Muslim (Islam).
In table 4, items ranking analysis was presented and it was used to answer the research question and it also revealed that item 7 was ranked 1st with a mean of 3.215 and it shows that “sexual abuse occurs when males are pre-occupied with viewing pornography”. Item 4 was ranked 2nd with a mean of 3.200 and it shows dresses revealing part of the breast or abdomen”. Item 20 was ranked 3rd with a mean of 3.110 and it stated that “sexual abuse occurs when the individual is unable to control his sexual urges”.
In the factors responsible for sexual abuse, the respondents expressed that indecent dressing was the most influential factor because it has the highest mean score of 2.953 among all other factors therefore, it was ranked 1st. next influencial factor as expressed by respondent students was the peer group factor, it has a mean of 2.653 and it was therefore ranked 2nd influential. Factor is the emotional factor and it was ranked 3rd because it has a mean of 2.640 which is lesser than the means of indecent dressing factors and peer group factors. The least influencial factors is the Revenge/punishment factor, it was ranked 4th because it had the lowest mean among all other factors and its mean is 2.505, therefore it is least influencial.
Hypothesis one states that there is no significant difference in the expression of the factor responsible for sexual abuse among male and female students of College of Education, Abeokuta. The result shows that there is no significant difference in the expression of male and female students toward sexual abuse because the calculated t-value of 0.44 is less than the critical t-value of 1.96. Hence the hypotheses was accepted. This result agrees with the findings of Schemidt (1987), who explained that gender differences in other aspect of sexuality such as desire for sex. Motive for having intercourse and arousal response to erotic materials are not so well documented or else the differences that existed as generation ego have evaporated in recent years. For the most part, then male and female are now quite similar in their sexuality. One may conclude from the finding that both male and female respondents agreed that indecent dressing, peer groups, emotional and Revenge/Punishment factors are responsible for sexual abuse.
Hypothesis two stated that there is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents who are Christians and their Muslim counterparts. The result shows that no significant difference was found and the hypothesis was therefore accepted. Hypothesis two was accepted because the calculated t-value of 0.72 is less than the critical t-value of 1.96. This shows that even religion of the respondents do not even make any difference in the perception of the factors responsible for sexual abuse; both Christians and Muslims believed in the same factors to be responsible for sexual abuse.
Hypothesis three which stated that there is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse on the basis of study level was rejected because a significant difference was found, that is, the calculated f-value of 5.0590 is greater than the critical f-value of 3.00, so a significant difference was found. This may be attributed to the fact that most fresh students were just from secondary schools where students’ movement and actions were usually monitored by the school prefects, class teachers and the school authority. It should be noted that on this facts, there were no academic freedom that might be abused like that which exists in the College of Education. It should also be noted that these fresh students were still new in the school and in-experienced as to their expression were significantly different from that of stalite who has been versed in experience and know almost all the nooks and crannies of the campus.
Hypothesis four which stated that there is no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of age was accepted because no significant difference was found. It was accepted because the calculated f-value of 2.3701 is less than the critical f-value of 3.00. This means that the age of respondents does not differ in their believes of the factors responsible for sexual abuse. The finding revealed that adults students did not expressed or to the factor responsible for sexual abuse in a matured way that the teenagers and younger students.
From the findings discussed and data analyzed, these conclusions were drawn from the study. The students expressed that indecent dressing is a main factor that is responsible for sexual abuse.
The study revealed that sexual abused mainly caused by indecent dressing such as ladies putting on clothes that revealed their physique, and wearing transparent clothes revealing parts of the breast or abdomen. This is closely followed by peer group factors such as when peers often discuss sexually related issues, when youths/individuals possess arms and ammunition etc. then emotional factor was next and it revealed that sexual abuse occurs when an individual is unable to control his/her sexual urges, when an individual constantly has wet dreams. Last of the expressed factors was the Revenge/punishment factor and it revealed that when a man is labeled as impotent he therefore want to prove his sexual capability by sexually abusing its victims or when a lady dresses provocatively she therefore seduces the male and sometimes if not controlled it may lead to sexual abuse.
- There was no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among male and female students of College of Education, Abeokuta.
- There was no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among students who are Christians and their Muslim counter parts.
- There was a significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of study level.
- There was no significant difference in the expression of the factors responsible for sexual abuse among respondents on the basis of age.
The following recommendations have been designed based on the findings of this study. There is need to introduce sex education to the youths in the society. Sex education programme is to give young people factual information and provide them with the basis of understanding the nature of male and female which will help them become mature and responsible persons, and to male rational decisions to live. Many parents do not instruct their children about sex at all and some instill erroneous beliefs about sex to their children. The fact is that ignorance on the knowledge of sexual matters is the cause of sexual misadventure such as pre-marital sex, engaging in rape, abortion, and unwanted pregnancies etc. which constitute future problems in marital life. These problems could be avoided by giving the necessary sex education to the upcoming youths in the society.
Guidance counsellors who are trained personnel should be allowed to practice on full time basis in our tertiary institutions and other places where youths are concentrated so as to help them on how to manage their emotional feelings. Parents also have major role to play in training their children to adhere to law and order. They should lay emphasis on proper discipline of children, checking and discouraging them from reading magazines or books that could influence their thought to abuse people sexually. Parent should enlighten their children more on the consequences of participating in the act of sexual abuse and also provide for them with basis parental care so as not to be influenced by peer groups as an alternative to the care/recognition not given to them at home.
Furthermore, parents and religious bodies should lay emphasis more on living on exemplary life because the behavioural traits in parents are always genetical event to their offspring. Religious bodies should have time for their youths by educating them about good virtues of life to keep them in sound mind and involving them in activities that will discourage them from participating in the act of sexual abuse.
There is need to introduce modes dressing code, and moral education policy into the Nigerian National Policy on Education at all level of Education (especially at tertiary level) where morality will pictured as something that one cannot dispose off before one can be awarded any certificate of education. Necessary committee should be set up in schools in order to check the perpetrators and victims of sexual abuse. These committees include disciplinary committee on the appropriate measures to be used for dealing with perpetrators of sexual abuse in a professional way. Infact, there is need for the government and non-governmental organizations to fund and support private counselling centers that could meet the needs of victims of sexual abuse.
In addition, government, and non-governmental bodies should as well introduce and finance programme as several workshop, session, using particular participatory learning. Furthermore, even if men are mostly perpetrators of sexual abuse, the programme should be careful to avoid labeling them as such. If these recommendations are put into practice, it will go a long way reducing, if not curbing the act of sexual abuse in the tertiary institutions and our society at large.
Suggestions for further Research
In this research work, the researcher investigated on the factors responsible for sexual abuse as expressed by students of College of Education, Abeokuta. Therefore, the present research recommends the following areas for future researchers.
- Factors influencing the wide spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
- Indiscipline among Nigerian Secondary School students; the cause and its resultant effect.
- Prevalence, cause and problems associated with sexual dissatisfaction among Nigeria couples.
- The risk factors of teaching sex education in Nigeria secondary school.
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