Knowledge Of The Consequences Of Unsafe Abortion Among Senior Secondary School Students

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Knowledge Of The Consequences Of Unsafe Abortion Among Senior Secondary School Students


Abstract


The research is carried out on the knowledge of the consequences of unsafe abortion among senior secondary school students. It will explore thefactor that affecting the teenage abortion and causes and Health education on prevalence of Abortion among teenage girls has been taking appropriately, maintenance of teenage girls at the age of 12-18 years should be care for from his parents and make sure to decrease teenage mortality rate. Related literature was also reviewed by different authors like definition of abortion, effect of unsafe abortion, causes of unsafe abortion and factors that contribute to teenage unsafe abortion. Survey design, the target populations of this research are prevalence of unsafe abortion among teenage girls, the sample technique was used for distribution of 50 questionnaires in the study area, the method of data collection was questionnaire, data was collected and analyzed through percentage. The finding shows that to health educate the people in the community about the effect of teenage unsafe abortion is background of the programme because when people are well educated they will comply with any programme that will help them in their life. Government should assist in the provision of facilities required by various primary health care units. Local government council having identified the danger prompting youths should organize sensitization workshops. Public enlightenment for the youth, Government Parents, health workers, Communities need to put hand together in controlling moral behaviours among teenage girls.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Pregnancy is the common name for gestation in humans. It is the development of one or more offspring, known as an embryo or fetus in the uterus (Wikipedia 2009). Pregnancy usually lasts for about nine (9) months in human beings. At this stage the embryo is developing offspring during the first 8 weeks following conception, and subsequently the term fetus is used until child birth. In many societies, medical or legal definitions of human pregnancy is somewhat arbitrarily divided into three trimester periods of three months each as a means to simplify reference to the different stages of pre-natal development. The first trimester carries the highest risk of miscarriage (natural death of embryo or fetus). During the second trimester the development of the fetus can be more easily monitored and diagnosed. The third trimester is marked by further growth of the fetus and the development of fetal fat stores (Wikipedia 2009).

Teenage pregnancy is a major public health and social problem the world over and its incidence is on the increase (Aboyeji 1997, Boyd 2000). Concern about the increase in unmarried adolescent pregnancy has been expressed throughout Africa (Letanro 1993). There is consensus that this is a phenomenon with detrimental effects for African society. The observed consequence include contributions to higher infant mortality (Becker 1993), potential barriers to the development of the woman, increased maternal morbidity and mortality (Garenne 1997) and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (Gyepi-Gabrah 1987). It is contributing substantially to overall fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. Taken as a region, the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa have the highest level of early child bearing in the world (Barker et al 1992). Teenage pregnancy constitutes a health hazard both to the mothers and the fetus. The mother is at increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, anaemia, obstructed labour and its sequelae (Okpani et al 1995, Ojengbede et al 1987, Uwaezuoke et al 2004). They are also three times more likely to die as a result of the complications of pregnancy and delivery than those aged 20-24 (Aboyeji et al 2001, UNFPA 2000). The fetus is prone to be delivered preterm, small for gestational age and has an increased risk of peri-natal death (Ojengbede et al 1987, Uwaezuoke et al 2004, Aboyeji et al 2001). The main issues that have strongly influenced the pattern of adolescent pregnancy include the declining age at menarche and the increase in the number of years spent in school. This influences the timing of marriage. Adolescents who have finished at least 7 years of schooling (in developing countries) are more likely to delay marriage until after the age of 18 years (Salako et al 2006). This increases the length of time that they are exposed to the risk of adolescent pregnancy. The reason for teenage pregnancy varies from country to country and from region to region within the same country. Factors that are associated with teenage pregnancy include rapid urbanization, low socioeconomic status, low educational and career aspiration, residence in a single parent home and poor family relationship (Adegbenga et al 2003). In 1999, Nigeria’s adolescent fertility rate was 111 births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19, and Nigerian women averaged more than five births during their lifetime. The emotional trauma associated with an unwanted pregnancy in adolescents can be overwhelming. The society is absolutely judgmental when it comes to issues of adolescent pregnancy. This attitude has however not diminished in no way the incidence of unwanted pregnancies amongst Nigerian adolescents (Eugene 2000).

Unsafe abortion is the expulsion of the offspring in a state of development from the womb between one to seven months of pregnancy, which is giving birth before the right time. In most cases of unsafe abortion is referred to as miscarriage of birth. unsafe abortion should be considered as a lifesaving situation due to illness. But however it is being practice at will due to societal changes and orientations. It is a situation where life is being tempered and it is becoming too dangerous and threatening to the life of the mother.

Unsafe abortion is also a form of removing pregnancy from the womb, either by taking pills (medical unsafe abortion) which involves taking medicines to cause miscarriage or by surgery (surgical abortion) where the pregnancy is removed from the womb. Most abortions can be provided on a daycare basis which means you do not need to stay at a clinic overnight. Every year almost 12,000 thousand teenage girls have abortion (Bpas 2009).
Abortion consists of two types which are the PILLS and SURGICAL abortion. The pills abortion is used after 9 to 24 weeks of pregnancy which involves taking of medicines to cause the womb to contract and push out the pregnancy. Also from 22 weeks after which the pregnancy is push out and an injection to the womb is given. Such injections are given to ensure the homeostatic balance of the uterus. However a checkup visit to the clinic is also required.

Surgical abortion is the dilation and evacuation of the fetus which takes up to 15 to 24 weeks of the pregnancy. In surgical abortion the doctors are required to remove the pregnancy using narrow forceps passed through the neck of the womb. This form of abortion is carried out under general anesthetic conditions (asleep). In surgical abortions, one can visit the clinic and return home the same day of abortion (for pregnancy up to 20 weeks) (Bpass 2009).

Unsafe abortion is obviously increasing and identified as a social problem in so many ways, it destabilizes the teenager’s educational career as a useful member of the society. She is out rightly stigmatized by the society and in the long run turns the girl into a prostitute. Another major incidence of pregnancy and unsafe abortion is the socio-cultural background of people. This is attributed to the orientation or beliefs which subjected the girl-child to early hawking at a very tender age of about nine or ten years. These inappropriate exposures make her vulnerable as well as the deceitfulness of irresponsible young boys and old men, usually compromise with her innocence.

Abortion is observed to be done at any stage of pregnancy. Most people carry it out at the first trimester, others at the second trimester and a few even at the last trimester notwithstanding the dangers that could result from such acts. A large number of female undergraduates and secondary school students who seek abortion, do so personally at home, taking self-prescribed drugs and herbs. Some get it done with drugs or herbs prescribed by unprofessional doctors, nurses, midwives pharmacist as well as traditional birth attendants/herbalists. However, a few get it done secretly in private hospitals and clinics by professional doctors and nurses. Abortion, though widely practised in the Nigerian society, has long-term attendant consequences that include physical health problem, psychological and social problems that are dangerous and destructive, sometimes culminating in death.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Abortion is a crucial and sensitive topic with controversial inclinations, especially among Nigerian female undergraduates and secondary school students. Abortion is also a subject on which many people feel strongly in both directions; some favour it while others object to it.

Emotions of people, particularly those of women run so high when issues on abortion are being raised or discussed. Abortion is commonly practised by several women and girls in the various states in Nigeria. Those engaged in abortion do so even when they are aware that abortion is a dangerous procedure and against the law in the country.

There are instances of severe pains and bleeding, infections, future miscarriages, complications in pregnancy and barrenness among other problems arising from abortion done unprofessionally that may result to death most times.

Psychological and emotional problems such as depression, guilt trauma, not forgiving oneself and transfer of aggression are also observed to be common experience of those who carryout abortion. Also, these emotional problems may result in some maladjusted behaviour and social problems that affect the home and society at large.

Therefore, the problem of this study is determination of the knowledge of the consequences of unsafe abortion among senior secondary school students.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose in embarking on this research work is to find out and look into an assessment on the prevalence of unsafe abortion among teenage girls that prevails in our secondary schools. The researcher will carry out this research work in order to make his contribution and recommendation to our secondary schools in Uyo local government.

The researcher also chooses this project to determine the level of performance of our students in our secondary schools in Uyo local government with a view and determination to prove to individual, the society and the nation concerned that, they are facing a serious problem that need every body’s efforts to bring about apparent difference and lasting solution.


1.4 Research Questions

To have a thorough understanding of an assessment on the prevalence of abortion among teenage girls in secondary schools in Uyo local government Area and the strategies put in place. This project will attempt to answer to the following:

  1. Is improper training of female children cause pregnancy and unsafe abortion?
  2. Do you learn sex education in your schools or at home?
  3. Do you know any student that has experience pregnancy and unsafe abortion?
  4. What is responsible for pregnancy and unsafe abortion in your school?
  5. Who is to be blamed for pregnancy and abortion in your school?
  6. Will pregnancy affect your education?
  7. Is poor living condition of the family lead to pregnancy and abortion in your school?
  8. Is pregnancy and abortion a global issue nowadays?
  9. Is environmental influence causes pregnancy and abortion in your school?

1.5 Hypotheses

In this research project, the following hypotheses are subsequently stated to enable the researcher arrives at the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools in Uyo local government Area.

  1. Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools girls.
  2. Impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl- child education in our secondary schools occurs due to parental failure to discharge their parental duties adequately.
  3. The administrators of the schools cannot cope with their responsibilities that brought about of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools.
  4. In many schools sex education is not taught at all.
  5. Societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our society.
  6. The impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education is a general problem not only in our secondary schools, but a general problem in the society.

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is assumed that what has been provided in our post primary schools must have to be tested to increase educational research, theories and practices. Sometimes partial solutions of it is assured that the researcher embark on finding more facts about the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools. The researcher will also make more efforts geared towards throwing more light on pregnancy and abortion which has become a national problem.

Many of the parents, schools administrators and the public at large have expressed doubts and dissatisfaction of the problem of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools and to look into the causes and prevention for its future occurrences.

Bearing in mind that secondary schools children could be in their early or late adolescent stage of development, teachers and parents should guide them properly especially on sex education. Part of the problem could be solved by emphasing on moral and religious education into our educational system.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The research will be based on particular reference to our secondary schools in Uyo local government Area of Akwa-Ibom state. The researcher’s view is intended to look into the issue of sexual violence against teenagers to prove the evidence on the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools. The incidence will determine to show the consequences of sexual violence in our secondary schools.

Also more comprehensive work is expected on this project work due to the unwillingness, failure and uncooperative attitude of some of schools administrators in some schools visited, to produce substantial and effective records in order to understand the impact of pregnancy and abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools.

The researcher however restricted his studies to only five mix (female and male) secondary schools within Uyo local government area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Mortality:

Loss of life on a large scale.

Abortion:

Termination of the pregnancy of a woman before it reaches full term.

Sexual Activities:

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone to acts with another person in varying patterns of frequency, for a wide variety of reasons..

Academic Performance:

This is used in the study to refers to students’ attitude to competition for excellent in their attitude toward participating in classroom activities and home work. It also used to students’ interest in learning.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to carryout out on an assessment on the knowledge of the consequences of unsafe abortion among senior secondary school students. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining if Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools girls, impact of pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl- child education in secondary schools occurs due to parental failure to discharge their parental duties adequately, if the administrators of schools cannot cope with their responsibilities that brought about of pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl-child education in our secondary schools, if schools teach sex education to students, if societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl-child education in our society, if the impact of pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl-child education is a general problem not only in secondary schools, but a general problem in the society.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 250 responses were validated from the enrolled participants of five (5) mixed secondary schools in Akwa-Ibom state.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. Socio-economic status of the girl-child and to meet up with the social changes in the society may significantly affect secondary schools girls.
  2. Impact of pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl- child education in our secondary schools do not occurs due to parental failure to discharge their parental duties adequately.
  3. The administrators of the schools inadequacy to cope with their responsibilities does not bring about pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl-child education in secondary schools.
  4. In many schools sex education is not taught at all.
  5. Societal influence has acted as one of the problem that brings about pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl-child education in our society.
  6. The impact of pregnancy and unsafe abortion on girl-child education is a general problem not only in our secondary schools, but a general problem in the society.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Parents should be encouraged to live harmoniously by resolving their difference amicably through effective communication flow, because if pregnancy issue will be discussed or educated freely, there will not be unwanted pregnancy issue among teenagers.
  2. School as an agent of socialization should be involved to impact knowledge to teenage in their interpersonal relationship.
  3. Deliberate effort should be made towards counseling and reorientation of teenagers who are victims of unwanted pregnancy to properly readjust themselves.
  4. Teenage should be counseled on why they should not allow their friends feelings/emotions situation to affect their own attitude towards sexual intercourse.
  5. Programmes and training in relation to the principles that will make teenagers to live peacefully and harmoniously should be organized for counsel.
  6. Electronic and print media should provide educative programmes for both parents and teenagers on the sources, effect and consequence of illegal pregnancy and how to handle it.
  7. Sex education should be initiated as early as 10 years of age and that appropriate messages should be designed for specific age group to be included in the school curriculum.
  8. Poverty was one of the major reasons revealed by the study as a cause of teenage pregnancy. To address the issue, it is recommended that government should strengthen families to be able to provide the needs of their teenager to do so.
  9. Also, it is the government responsibilities to ensure that girls go to school and attend beyond primary level, prevents early pregnancies and create conducive environment in schools for those who get pregnant but still want to study as well as encourage the teenage parents to complete their studies.
  10. Finally, the following number of policies should be designed to protect teenagers from getting pregnant during adolescent state: National Health Policy, National Adolescent Health Policy, Sexual Reproductive Health Minimum Package, Minimum Age of Sexual Consent Policy, Defilement Law among others.

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