Knowledge And Acceptance Of Child Spacing In Puje Ward Wukari LGA
This study was conducted to assess the awareness of adequate child spacing implication to the health of children in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state. The specific objectives were to examine the level of knowledge of adequate child spacing in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state, to identify factors responsible for acceptance of adequate child spacing in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state, and to examine the health implications of adequate child spacing on the children in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state. This descriptive research study was conducted with a sample of 220 respondents who were randomly selected for the study. A self-developed structured questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. The result reveals thatthe factors responsible for adequate child spacing were observed to include Level of education (54.3%), Socio-economic status (40.4%), Family size (49.7%), Lack of access to health services (40.6%), Inadequate knowledge (51.6%), and Cultural and religious factors (60.4%). Out of the 220 respondents, 68% stated that adequate child spacing could lead to health complication and eventually death in children born subsequently, (62.8%) stated that adequate child spacing leads to malnourished and dysfunctional birth of children, (13.0%) stated that adequate child spacing is risky to maternal health and nutrition opportunities for new births, and (8.7%) stated that adequate child spacing could lead to stunted growth and development of a child. Based on the findings of the study, parents should pay attention to the spacing of child birth in order to empower women through comprehensive and intensive health awareness programme. Also, the community should be sensitized on the health implications of adequate child spacing which could constitute a serious complication on the health of women and children.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Concept of Family Size and Child Spacing
- 2.3 Birth Interval and Effects on Mother and Child Health
- 2.4 Theoretical Review
- 2.4.1 Modernization Theory of Reproductive Decision Making
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Research Setting
- 3.3 Target Population
- 3.4 Sample Size
- 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.2 Background to the Study
Mortality in children under five years remains a factor that defines the wellbeing of any population and it is usually seen as one of the indicators of health development and socioeconomic status which go for quality life in a given population, as measured by the life expectancy rate (Buwembo, 2010). According to the United Nation International Children Fund, child mortality is defined as the death of a child born alive between the day of birth and span of 12 months (UNICEF, 2013). The death rate among children is the scale of measurement of infants dying before they reach the age of one. Infant mortality includes deaths that occur between ages 1 and 5. Cases of infant and child death are largely inadequately reported and rarely documented in developing nations. Efforts for survival can be effective only if they are based on accurate information on the causing factors of diseases (Abhulimhen and Iyoha, 2012). The environment where the child is born and brought up is fast becoming unhealthy so that the life of the infant is constantly threatened by risk of morbidity (Chaudhari, Srirastava, Maitra and Desai, 2013). Another factor that affects infants and children survival has been identified to be the high depressing effect of HIV/AIDS. This threat has been a major global issue affecting the lives of families and eventually reducing the chances of survival of the infant (Baingana and Bos, 2013).
Many countries have shown a fair amount of progress in tackling infant death rate and it has been more advanced in Northern Africa, Eastern Asia, Western Asia, Latin America the Caribbean and Europe. It has set them on the track of achieving the SDG in opposition to many nations that still possess unacceptably high rates of child death. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for one-fifth of the population of infants under 5years, and also accounts for about half (8.8 million) of deaths recorded in 2008 which indicates inadequate progress to meet the SDG 2020 target (WHO, 2014). In Nigeria, an examination of death levels across three successive five-year time periods indicate that mortality rate of under-five reduced from 199 deaths per 1,000 births during the middle to late 1990s to 157 deaths per 1,000 births in the middle part of the early 2000s and 128 deaths per 1, 000 births in 2013 (NPC and ICF Macro, 2013). These factors are attributed to poor family planning services and use, especially, adequate child spacing. Lack of proper birth spacing serves as a causing factor of child malnutrition, deformities and health complications in adolescence and young adulthood (WHO, 2014).
The socio-demographic and economic factors of families play vital roles in determining survival of a child worldwide (Shawky and Milaat, 2011). For instance, mothers’ education level has an inherent effect on the children’s health (Abuqamar, Coomans and Louckx, 2011). Early marriage has also been noted in various studies to have had significant effects on both the socioeconomic condition and infant mortality rate (Othman and Saadat, 2013). A study by Raj et al., (2010) in India indicated that children born to mothers who were married before the age of 18 were more prone to a higher risk of stunting and underweight when compared to infants of mothers who got married at the age of 18 or older.
The increase in mortality rates in Wukari LGA, Taraba state seem to be firmly established and this would appear as the most striking demographic phenomenon of the last seven years. While, the pattern of mortality increases in Wukari LGA, Taraba state bears similarities to the observed pattern in the early stage of the demographic transition, it is occurring now under quite different social, economic, and medical conditions. Child mortality rates are rapidly increasing as more infants are born with HIV and antropogenic factors. such as internal crises, malnutrition and climate change (MOH, 2014). Several health agencies both at the international and national levels, including non-governmental agencies across the globe have striven towards combating the menace of under-five mortality. However, to the best of the knowledge of the researcher no study has been carried out on the trends and levels of awareness of adequate child spacing on child health in Wukari LGA, Taraba state, specifically Puje Ward. Even where research exists on other parts of the country, very few of such works have placed emphasis on the socio-economic differentials. Studies in these areas have not clearly indicated the pattern or trends of infant and child mortality stemming from child spacing inadequacies as to whether the trend is increasing or decreasing in Wukari LGA, Taraba state.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Reports from systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that short- and long-term intervals between pregnancies are independently associated with high risk of negative maternal, infant, and child outcomes (Conde Agudelo, et al, 2016; Rutstein 2010). Inter-pregnancy spacing shorter than 18 months and longer than 59 months are greatly associated with high risk of negative perinatal outcomes. Moreover, short spacing are associated with high risk of premature membrane rupture, utero-placental bleeding and disorders including abruptio placentae and placenta, and uterine rupture in women using a vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery session encounter; and long spacing (usually longer than 5 years) are associated with a high risk of preeclampsia (Conde-Agudelo, et al., 2017). Preceding inter-pregnancy spacing lesser than 36 months are relatively associated with a greater risk of child and under-five-years death rate, and spacing shorter than 24 months is significantly associated with a high risk of early neonatal, neonatal, and infant mortality levels (Rutstein 2013).
The means by which short and long spacing between pregnancies may affect maternal, infant, and child health have been the focal point of interest for much debate. Hypotheses usually adopt a biological or a behavioral orientation, yet no one framework has arisen as a dominant one (Erickson and Bjerkedal 2013; Winikoff 2013; Klebanoff 2013). In 2005, WHO conducted a technical consultation on birth spacing and it recommended the formation of a comprehensive framework to explain and evaluate the possible causal mechanisms of effective birth spacing (WHO 2016). Several health agencies at the national and international levels, including non-governmental agencies across the globe have striven towards combating the menace of spiking under-five mortality rates, via adequate birth spacing of children among a host of other factors. The study was therefore carried out to find out the awareness of adequate child spacing implication to the health of children in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and acceptance of child spacing in Puje Ward Wukari LGA, Taraba State.
However, the specific objectives are to:
- Examine the level of adequate child spacing inPuje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state
- Identify factors responsible for acceptance of adequate child spacing inPuje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state
- Examine the health implications of adequate child spacing on the children in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the level of adequate child spacing inPuje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state?
- What factors are responsible for adequate child spacing inPuje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state?
- What are the health implications of adequate child spacing on the children in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
HO1: There is no relationship between knowledge and acceptance of child spacing in Puje Ward, Wukari LGA, Taraba state
1.6 Significance of the Study
The results and findings of this study will fill the knowledge gap as a means of information to patients, healthcare professionals and providers, individuals and the society at large. This study generates information that could be found useful in the development and review of policies on family planning services, adequate child spacing and its effects on health of children. The study will show the level of infant and child mortality, it’s implication to health effects and awareness among parents. Management and Regulatory Authorities will use the findings from this study as a basis for identifying strategies for community participation and the training of health personnel and providers with the aim of implementing effective intervention strategies.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Refers to a person’s assent to the reality of a situation, recognizing a process or condition without attempting to change it or protest it.
Refers to the level of awareness, attitudes and beliefs about a particular disease condition or situation; in this study, the concern is on adequate child spacing.
Refers to how soon after a prior pregnancy a woman becomes pregnant or gives birth again.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
One of the major indices of development in any society is good health for its citizenry and health promotion initiatives to sustain such improvements. To achieve this, every government makes frantic efforts towards such goal attainment. Such efforts become share waste. If the root cause of the health problem is still inherent in the people. As such any positive effort towards solution to such problem should first of all appraise in totality the situation on the ground in order to be equipped with adequate information that can lead to its solution. Based on the findings of this study, it was established that adequate child spacing has effects on children and women’s health. The cause-effect, implication and perception of child should be taken into consideration.
- Parents should pay attention to the spacing of child birth in order to empower women through comprehensive and intensive health awareness programme. Also, this will involvement of employment of adult literacy education should be used to enable rural women to integrate into the whole spectrum of health development programme.
- Regulatory bodies and authorities should intensify their efforts on the re-orientation of women and communities about women’s rights, their prospects as women and to refrain from cultural beliefs/practices which are harmful to the health of women and children so that they can live a free, full and productive lives.
- Also, the community should be sensitized on the health implications of adequate child spacing which could constitute a serious complication on the health of women and children.
Knowledge And Acceptance Of Child Spacing In Puje Ward Wukari LGA
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