The Effect Dating And Premarital Sex On Academic Performance Of Urban And Rural Students Of Akwa Ibom State

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

The Effect Dating And Premarital Sex On Academic Performance Of Urban And Rural Students Of Akwa Ibom State


Abstract


The study was on the effect of dating and premarital sex on academic performance of urban and rural student in AkwaIbom State. The general purpose of study was identifying the effect of dating and premarital sexon the academic performance of urban student. And then suggest counseling techniques that will help in controlling the adolescent premarital sex. Two null hypotheses and two alternate hypotheses were formulated the instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The statistical analyses used were simple percentage and chi-square statistics for the research hypotheses.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Dating and pre-marital sex-raise endless questions, it is a practice that influence by the time, period, social conditions, construct, biology, cultural no and institutional structure that surrounds people. Dating is an activity that most college aged students are interested or are engaged in.

Dating according to Longman English Dictionary of Contemporary English defines dating to be a romantic relationship with someone. Collins Dictionary also defines dating as engagement or appointment between the opposite sex. Pre-marital sex is then having sexual intercourse with the opposite sex before marriage. It is an exceptional young person who has not had sexual intercourse while still a teenager. Mache (1981) the young passion for love and peer-pressure are so sex, is viewed by youth as fun and that when you really like someone, it is only natural to want to be intimate. Watch Tower Bible and tract Society of Pennsylvania by Mache (1981) some may even say that having sex proved your man-hood or womanhood. Not wanting to be viewed as odd one may thus fall under pressure to experience sexual relationship contrary to popular opinion, not all youth are in a that falling in love is as its nature a substitute for personal accomplishment.

Psychologists, from (1968), proposed that there are two purpose to a person falling in love. The first step is from the need to escape, the second is from internal discontent, grows the longing and tendency to fall in love with another person. On the other hand, distinguished between welfare while immature love explicit the beloved in other to satisfy his/her needs.

In the last few decades, dating was informal, daters requires no formal commitment to each other but now the peers institute the rules of dating Rehelle (1999) stated that the popular part time on dates were dancing and it was a group but now it has become couple oriented. Cars also have a great impact on dating and premarital sex. Having cars now enable couples to have more privacy and intimacy away from the glaring eyes of onlookers from 1960’s till the present day, there have been some drastic changes. In dating feminism had a big impact on dating and premarital sex, woman are now empowered more than ever themselves not just as a wife but also a human being. The advent of birth control methods increases the rate of premarital sex. The average age at first intercourse ranges between 13 and 14, Allenburger and Moone (1992) for males and females, Juhasz, Kaufman and Mever, (1996) reported that 80% of males and 61% of females have engaged in dating and premarital sex is a practices that is lighted again and again in the media. Sociologists pointed out that the idea of a romantic love did not ever exist prior to industrial revolution of 18th and 19th century. After the industrial revolution, people did not depend on each other as much to survive when idea of romantic love first appear. Dating at a young age is characterized by youth of nowadays, now a days as fun and is done for a companionship rather than a serious activity for the purpose of finding a life long mate.

The media have a direct influence on dating habit and views about the opposite sex. Male controlled media have enhanced an environment in which to define woman as sex object Ollenburger and Moore (1992), movies and television serve to create and maintained social beliefs about the sex. There are many biological factors that helps determined ones dating habits, biological make-up, as well as chemical actions plays a major role in who one is attracted to. There isn’t much information on how they work, but hormones are known to be a leading factor in establishing sex drive. A study of love attractiveness and sex drive carried out by Wilson and Nins (1976) pointed out that “Sex drives are chemical release by the gonalds and other glands circulates through the blood back to brain, they influence our biological readiness for production attractiveness to potential partners and receptiveness to them. Another chemical that affect dating and pre-marital sex is a aphrodisiacs. It enhance sexual desire, some of these substances are Caviar, Oysters, BV Vitamins E, and Chocolate. All unfunded claim”. The timing of sexual initiations and subsequent sensual behaviour is influence by many factors such as;

Parental Influence

Marital and child bearing of parents acting as a role model, including experience of divorce, living arrangement and behaviour towards the opposite sex have been identified as being impacted (Ostrov et al., 1985) Girls from single parent families tend to become sexually active, however, it is not dear if lack of supervision of behaviour modeling is at the core.

Parental Supervision

Parental supervision has impact on adolescent girls but not so much on a male child. Fingeman (1989) non authoritarian parenting has been found to be associated with non virginity I n youth as a result of permissiveness and no parental support. Parental attitude and view. Moore et al., (1991) found that parents who strong traditional views about pre-marital sex and communicated some to their children were the only group able to infleucen their children’s sexual behaviour.

Relationship with the family: Lack of attentive and nurturing parent is linked to early sexual activity and unplanned teenage pregnancies peer association is closely linked with low academic performance; Ohanession and Crackett (1993) suggested that academic achievement by girls predicted postponed sexual activity.

Educational goals have been identified as impacting on sexual activity with high achievers having lower rate of dating and pre-marital sex, amongst male and female students of urban and rural areas.

However, educational factors are often mediated by other influence such as coming from a well to do family and having plans for the future peer association has been indicated as one of the strongest predictors of adolescent sexual behaviour Diablasio and Benda (1999) stated that youth who do not engage in sex, while those that are sexually active tend to believe that their friends are sexually active as well. Every one has a system a sexual sensors consisting of specialized nerves ending that responds to sexual stimulus all over the body, sexual arousal or excitement may begin with sex related though, felling arousal or touching or even smell.

The purpose of sex education therefore is to provide students with adequate knowledge of their own physical, mental and emotional maturation process as related to sex. The knowledge of sex education would eliminate fear and anxiety to individual sexual adjustment and therefore help him/her to develop an understanding attitude sexual promiscuity, teenage regency; normal abortion and school dropout. There are all effect of dating and premarital sex which originated from lack of sex education which subsequently affect academic performance, there’s need for counseling which would produce behaviour change.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is a link between sexual activities and academic performance, as the world changes, so do our lives, this is true of dating and pre-marital sex; one can observe the drastic changes in dating, rituals and pre-marital sex.

A sexologist, Tiefer (1995) stated that sex is not a natural act, Wilson and Nias (1976) also stated that sex hormones are increase when the brain is confronted by sexual arousing stimuli and decrease when confronted with fear, anxiety, stress. This is probably because hormone secreted is controlled by the pituitary gland which has connections to the hypothalam us’ in the brain, pheromones is another chemical that plays important role dating.

These hormones help to regulate and control female menstrual cycle, which in turn affected ovulation, emotion, performances and hormonal level in the body. When these happen, they become seemingly comfortable to express their feelings toward each other, if the youths are allowed to interact romantically without supervision by parents, it will certainly affect their academic performance.

Because of the possible out-come, from it premarital sex and dating evolving from the youth, failure to discuss that issue of sex and sexuality education with our children, leads to them dating secretly because of the natural tendency to do so coupe with environmental factors. These secrecy and taboos surrounding the issue of sex leads to high incidence of teenage sexual tragedies, dating and pre-marital sex involve the emotional, physical, social, psychological and educational, aspect of the individual health wise, it may lead to STDs, HIV/AIDs, some student use the academic for love talks, outing and seeking for the seemingly happiness of each other. This type of relationship will certainly affect academic performance thereby leading dropping out from school.

This unfortunate situation abounds among urban and rural secondary schools students and certainly needs counseling intervention to redress such ugly trend. Against this background, the study investigates effects of dating and pre-marital sex on academic performances of urban and rural students.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of dating and pre-marital sex on academic performance of students in urban and rural secondary school specifically; the study has the following objectives:

  1. To examine the influence of sex education on pre-marital sex of students.
  2. To assess the difference in pre-marital sex between urban and rural students.
  3. To also determine the relationship between pre-marital sex and academic performance of students.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guides the study:

  1. Does sex education have any influence on pre-marital sex?
  2. Does any difference exist between urban and rural students in their pre-marital sex activities.
  3. Does any relationship exist between pre-marital sex and academic performance of students.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. H0: Sex education does not significantly influence marital sex among students.
    H1: Sex education does significantly influence marital sex among students.
  2. H02: Urban students do not differ significantly from rural students in their pre-marital sex activities.
    H2: Urban students do differ significantly from rural students in their pre-marital sex activities.
  3. H03: There is no significant relationship between pre-marital sex and academic performance students.
    H3: There is a significant relationship between pre-marital sex and academic performance students

1.6 Significance of the Study

It is expected that the study will be beneficial to parent s, students, educators, government and others in general.

The study suggests that “all information and help regarding sex education should be given to students as it relates to the provision of factual knowledge about male/female reproductive structures, functions, structural charged and the process of reproduction.

Secondly, the study will help the Government consider the inductive sexs education in the school curriculum.

Thirdly, it is a known fact that no one can stop young people from having sex, hence the need for comprehensive sex education as this will provide opportunity for questions explorations and assessment of their sexual attitudes.

Lastly, it will help young people to develop interpersonal skills in communication decision making, assertiveness and peer refusal skills as well as the ability to create a satisfying relationship in adolescent and adulthood thereby preventing teenage sexual tragedies.


1.7 Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to the effect of pre-marital sex academic performance of urban rural secondary school. Students in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area. It does not include students in tertiary or primary institution the generation the study therefore be for the secondary school students only.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

The only limitation to the study was time factor to have reached out to all Secondary Schools in Ikot Abasi Local Government Area.


1.9 Assumptions of the Study

  1. It is assumed that pre-marital sexs has a lot of influence on academic performance of students.
  2. Parents assume that young people walking together always may lead to pre-marital sexs.
  3. It is generally assumed that others similar to oneself will be more pivotal as a source of influence.

1.10 Definition of Terms

Dating:

To have a romantic relationship with someone.

Pre-marital sex:

Having sexual intercourse before marriage.

Sex/sexual intercourse:

The activity in which male and female join their sexual organs to create a body or for pleasure.

Assertiveness:

Behaving in a confident way so that people notice you.

Assessment:

A process in which you make a judgment about a person or situation.

Exploration:

An examination or discussion of something to find out more about it.

Sexuality:

The things that people do and feel that are connected with their desire or ability to have sexs.

Exploit:

To treat someone unfairly in order to get or an advantage of yourself.

Industrial revolution:

The period especially in the 18th to 19th centuries when machines were invented and the first factory established.

Feminism:

The belief that woman should haves the same rights and opportunities as men.

Ritual:

Something that is don in fixed and expected was but without real meaning or sincerity.

Sexology:

A person who studies sexual behaviour especially among humans.

Romantic:

Showing strong feeling of love and like; doing things that are connected with love.

Obligation:

A moral or legal duty to do something.

Cradle:

To hold something gentle in your hands or arms.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of dating and premarital sex on academic performance of urban and rural student of Akwa Ibom state.

In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges dating and premarital sex among secondary school student.


5.2 Summary

From the study, it is evidence that dating, particularly having multiple sexual partners, adversely affects educational attainment. Specifically, it appears that it is not simply being sexually active, but rather the number of sexual partners that contributes to dropping out of school. Interestingly, spending too much time dating seems to conflict with schooling not only for women, but for men as well. Second, pregnancy has a clear negative affect on women’s schooling and (prior to controlling for the total number of sexual partners) a marginally significant negative effect on men’s schooling. Nonetheless, even after controlling for pregnancy we find that the number of sexual partners remains a significant predictor of dropping out of school. Lastly, we find opposing effects of marital aspirations on the educational attainment of men and women. For women, findings a person whom would be suitable for marriage increases their risk of dropping out of school, while for men it increases their likelihood of completing secondary school.


5.3 Conclusion

This study has highlighted the danger that students are likely to encounter due to their engagement in sexual relationship. It is emphasized that, there is a danger of students contracting infectious diseases like HIV or dropping out of school. However, despite the fact that sexual activity poses threats to students’ health and academy, still they are continually involved in. This study appreciates that, many sexually active adolescents in AkwaIbom state lack the basic knowledge about the functioning of their bodies and the risks involved in becoming sexually active at their early age (REPRO/GTZ, 2000). It is therefore contended that sexual and reproductive health education should be given a chance for the young generation in Nigeria. Relevant and appropriate sexual and reproductive health information is necessary for adolescents’ physical and intellectual health. The fact that Nigeria prohibits sexual relationship in schools is not the sole solution for the problem. Many students are in sexual relationship in which some are sexually exploited by sexual predators including teachers. It is noted that, there are many forces like self-desire, poverty, peer pressure, etc. that push students to involve in sexual activity. Promisingly, all the forces can be controlled either through individual students or external interventions.


5.4 Recommendations

Haven completed the study, the researcher postulate the following recommendations; Teachers, parents, and the community at large have to effectively play their role to bringing up the children to become responsible individuals. Sexual and reproductive health education is necessary in this context, which should be channeled from different angles of human interactional opportunities: home, school, play grounds, churches, etc. The government should support diligently and harmoniously all the initiatives to help young generation in the country especially students. Counseling and guidance systems in educational institutions should be made strong enough to carry activities that will help learners get the best out of their school lives. Students sometimes get into severe problems because they lack support and help network. They lack services where to seek help when they are stressed, depressed, or confused in making decisions. The current Nigerian education system gives the discipline masters positions to provide counseling and guidance.


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