Attitude And Practice Of Risky Sexual Behavior On The Health Status Of Adolescent In Government Day Secondary School Magami Jalingo Local Government Area
Adolescents have a tendency to engage in high risk sexual and drug-use behaviour; and with a poor health-seeking behaviour, they continue to present the highest number of new cases of HIV reported in Africa. The objective of the study was to assess attitude and practice of risky sexual behavior on the health status of adolescent in government day secondary school MagamiJalingo Local Government Area, Taraba state. A researcher administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The findings showed that most of respondents knew that a person with HIV can look healthy for many years and not show it, and that a person would not contract HIV by having sexual intercourse with a newly infected person with HIV (67.1%). Also, respondents knew that sharing multiple sex partners could increase the chances of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (86.4%). Also, findings showed that majority of the respondents felt that One can get HIV/AIDS By Casual contact like hugging (53.7%); they afraid of sharing toilet with HIV/AIDS persons (65.8%); they have had an experience of Sexual Intercourse (71.8%); they have a steady sexual partner (78.4%); and they involve in causal sexual relationship (81.3%). Lastly, findings showed that majority of the respondents have stopped having sexual intercourse and having casual sex apart from partner (78.2%); Have reduced the number of sexual Partner because of HIV/AIDS (75.3%); make use of condom during sexual intercourse (85.6%); keep one sexual partner (70.7%); and know your HIV/AIDS status (68.3%).The study concluded that adolescents have a fairly good knowledge of AIDS, and poor attitude towards people living with AIDS. Few are sexually active and are engaged in unsafe sex.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Objectives of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Questions
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Conceptual Review
- 2.2 Hiv/Aids Epidemiological Features
- 2.3 Pathogenesis and Mode of Transmission
- 2.4 Sexual Transmission
- 2.5 Diagnosis and Treatment
- 2.6 Theoretical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Research Setting
- 3.3 Target Population
- 3.4 Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
- 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Result and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a problem that has extended beyond the Ministry of Health to have a profound impact on other ministries such as that of the Ministry of Education in affected countries. It is part of the problems that counteract development and need to be addressed. HIV/AIDS is one of the prevalent setbacks in life that hinders progress for the youth (Norton & Dawson, 2015). Among the most vulnerable groups to infection are the youth who are in schools and tertiary institutions. This study is concerned with college students who are part of the youth. Their developmental stage and the role they are expected to play require that they are knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS. Most of the interventions have targeted school pupils; there is scant information about how this problem is understood by students globally.
The number of people infected with HIV/AIDS continues to rise globally. The year 2003 recorded the number of newly infected HIV cases to be 4.8 million people, and 2.9 million had died of the disease (UNAIDS, 2014). Across the globe, 38 million people are living with HIV (Nunn, Baggaley, Melby & Thomas, 2014). Currently, six million people are living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries (Nunn, et al., 2014). The same report states that 14,000 people are infected each day, nearly 2,000 under the age of 15 years; 8, 500 die each day of HIV, with about 1,600 being children; and more than 6,000 children are orphaned by AIDS each day. According to UNAIDS (2014), youths less than 25 years old constitute more than 50% of the world’s HIV population, and the ages 15-25 years have been cited as accounting for more than half of all new cases of HIV.
AIDS is the most infectious disease to hit Africa in recorded history. The continent of Africa holds approximately 70% of the global total of people living with HIV (Saloner, 2016). In many African countries, HIV is spreading throughout the general population rather than being confined to populations at high risk, such as sex workers, men who have sex with other men and injection drug users (UNAIDS, 2014). The frightening feature of the pandemic is that, currently, treatment is not affordable or even accessible in developing countries, most of which, are in Africa. While the spread of infection seems to be stabilizing in some African countries, such as Uganda, it is still on the increase in countries like Swaziland (Kelly, 2000). The sub-Saharan African region accounts for 62% of the world’s young people living with AIDS (UNAIDS, 2014). About 90-95% of people living with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa do not know that they are infected, and access to counseling and testing is often limited (Nunn, et al., 2014).
Over half of all new infections worldwide were among young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Every day, 6,000 young people become infected with HIV more than five every minute (Tan, Pan, Zhou, Wang &Xie, 2017). In the United States, half of all new infections are estimated to be among people under age 25 years and the majority of young people are infected sexually (Centers for Disease Control, & Prevention, 2018). Demographic health surveys of many countries were revealed adolescents are experienced puberty nowadays at younger age than the previous generation. As result, they are involved in early initiation of sexual intercourse; most of it is being unsafe, unplanned and exposing them to unwanted pregnancy, abortion and sexual transmitted disease (Abebe &Fekadu, 2015).
Globally, university students are in the age range with the highest rates of new HIV infections (Lewis, Malow, & Ireland, 2017). The university environment with its attendant relative lack of parental supervision offers great opportunity for young people, who are bridging from adolescence to adulthood, to test the limits of their new found freedom through sexual experimentation (Lewis, Malow, & Ireland, 2017; Duncan, Miller, Borskey, Fomby, Dawson, & Davis, 2016). Such experimentation frequently involves engagement in risky sexual activities such as multiple partnerships, inconsistent use of condoms, and having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs (Nakornkhet, Crowe, Torabi, & Ding, 2018). Literature on health related behavior emphasizes the perception of being at risk of infection as one of the necessary conditions for behavioral change (Shiferaw, Alemu, Assefa, Tesfaye, Gibermedhin, & Amare, 2014). Moreover, the degree of the perceived risk seems to affect individual actual control in adopting preventive measures. Individual risk perception as well as individual knowledge, is likely to be subjected to socio-environmental influences, as long as social interaction allows information exchange, facilitates common evaluation and definition of the meaning and of its validity (USAID, 2014).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Prevention of HIV/AIDS is cheaper, better and more effective than no cure. Without cure or preventive vaccines, prevention remains the mainstay in the control of this human calamity. Considering the prevalence rate and the status of women especially in the African setting, there is need for a research study or survey of the knowledge attitude and practice of these preventive measures among the women. The knowledge gain will be useful in designing intervention programmes to reduce the prevalence of this deadly disease and reduce further spread. A lot of work has been done so far towards understanding and improving public awareness of this new threat. Most of these have been targeted to adolescents, service providers including clinicians, nurses, students, patients, and high risk behaviour persons like commercial sex workers, female hawkers other trades like migrant workers, long distance drivers etc. However, student population in Madonna University records limited study on the at-risk behaviors which predisposes and exposes them to the virus. Students are of diverse cultural background, ethnic groups, religion and upbringing. They are in their adolescents and youthful period with potential risk, their first time to be away from parental control; the quest for material gain in order to match up with societal expectations coupled with ignorance and care free attitude predisposes some of them, and makes them a high risk group for HIV/AIDS.
Interventions developed for general population may not be appropriate for university students. In order to develop the body of knowledge necessary needed to develop interventions targeted to different category of people, it is an immense important to study the overall HIV risk behaviors and perception of risk among university students. This approach is critical because of the plausible differences in risky behaviors between on-campus and off-campus students (Eisenberg, 2016). University students are at risk because they tend to be sexually adventurous, often with multiple partners and do not consistently use condoms (Lewis, Malow, & Ireland, 2017; Prince, & Bernard, 2018). Risky sexual behavior includes early age at first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, unprotected sexual intercourse, and untreated sexually transmitted diseases (Ford, Jaccard, Millstein, Bardsley, & Miller, 2014). In both low and high endemic settings, reducing the vulnerability of young people to HIV infection is the principal defense against the epidemics of the future (UNAIDS, 2014). Although various surveys have been done to study the sexual behavior of youth in Nigeira, very few studies have assessed youth HIV risk sexual behaviors and perception of HIV risk. So far no study has been carried out on perception of HIV risk and sexual risk behaviors among university students in the study area. Fully understanding these issues will help to provide a foundation for future inquiries into the behavioral aspects that contribute to HIV transmission. Hence, assessing the perception of HIV risk and sexual risk behaviors among adolescents will provide information for policy makers to design and implement appropriate programs on prevention of sexually transmitted diseasesand reproductive health.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to assess the attitude and practice of risky sexual behavior on the health status of adolescent in government day secondary school MagamiJalingo Local Government Area. Specifically, the following objectives will guide the study;
- To determine the extent of knowledge of risky sexual behavior on the health status of adolescent in government day secondary school Magami
- To assess the attitudes of adolescents concerning risky sexual behavior on the health status in government day secondary school Magami
- To ascertain the practice of risk behaviors of adolescents in government day secondary school Magami
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were formulated to guide the study based on the research objectives;
- What is the level of knowledge of risky sexual behavior on the health status of adolescent in government day secondary school Magami?
- What is the attitudes of adolescents concerning risky sexual behavior on the health status in government day secondary school Magami?
- What are the practice of risk behaviors of adolescents in government day secondary school Magami?
1.5 Research Questions
- HO1: There is no significant relationship between risky sexual behavior on the health status of adolescent in Government Day Secondary School Magami Jalingo Local Government Area, Taraba state
- HA1: There is a significant relationship between risky sexual behavior on the health status of adolescent in Government Day Secondary School Magami Jalingo Local Government Area, Taraba state
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study are significant to students and the public health. The findings of the study will be beneficial to newly admitted nursing students who might lack awareness of risk factors of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV because it will expose them to factors that cause these infections. Also, the findings will help the students know how to prevent the spread of HIV in the society. It will expose the students to the causes of HIV and how to live optimally and adopt healthy sexual behaviors where concerned. Also, findings from this study will educate individuals on how to maintain a healthy lifestyle throughout life due to presence of health centers and health educators, provision of pamphlet or health talks related to HIV. Furthermore, Government and non-government organization could find the results of this study useful in formulating and implementing policies aimed at improving care of individuals with HIV. Finally, this study would also serve as an information resource to various international stakeholders in health as well as contribute to the existing knowledge and make room for further research in the field.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body’s ability to fight the organisms that cause disease. HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Risk behaviours are habits and lifestyle that potentially expose people to harm, or significant risk of harm which will prevent them reaching their potential, in this case, those behaviors that will predispose nursing students to contacting HIV.
The state of health of a person or population assessed with reference to morbidity, impairments, anthropological measurements, mortality, and indicators of functional status and quality of life.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
The level of accurate knowledge adolescents have about the cause and nature of HIV/AIDS, the methods of spread and the preventive measures will greatly influence their attitude towards the disease entity itself and people living with it, as well as result in a change in their sexual behaviours in favour of abstinence or at least a lower practise of unsafe sex. Senior secondary school students in government day secondary school Magami Jalingo Local Government Area had good knowledge of AIDS, and poor attitude towards risky sexual behaviour. Few are sexually active and largely engaged in unsafe sex.
It is necessary that HIV information and life skill education be intensified through school-based education programs, as part of school curriculum, and through community activities involving parents and faith based organisations. Such information should also aim to correct the negative attitude towards people affected by the disease. There is need for the introduction of reproductive health programmes that will target a positive change in adolescents’ attitudes to risky sexual behaviours and motivate them to undertake behaviours that would limit such risks. Youth friendly health services that will provide HIV counselling and testing should be established within the communities.
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