Knowledge Of Family Life Education And Sexual Behaviour Of In-School Adolescent

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Knowledge Of Family Life Education And Sexual Behaviour Of In-School Adolescent


Chapter One


Introduction

Background to the study

Adolescence is a time when young people are learning a great deal about themselves and adjusting to a rapid change in their bodies. World Health Organization (WHO 1995) views adolescent as person between 10 – 19 years and they are made up of 20% of the world’s population of 5 whom 85% of them live in developing countries. During early ado1lescence, many experience new uncertainties about their bodies and how they function. They need information and assurance about what is happening to them. As they mature, some feel confused about what they are supposed to do in a variety of situations including level of relationship with family and peers, coping with new sexual feelings and trying to access conflicting message about who they are and what is expected of them (Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 1991).

In the past, it was normal to protect adolescents from receiving education on sexual matters as it was falsely believed that ignorance would encourage chastity yet. The rampant unprotected sexual activities among adolescents and the devastating consequences in evidence of the sexual and reproductive health behaviour of Nigeria Youth confirm that they had not been formally taught about sexuality, their information on this important subject came from peers, new, magazine, and biology classes (Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 1991).

Many young people without guidance from responsible adults make decisions daily about sexuality, relationship and health issues and many times, decisions are not based on accurate information or on clear and well considered values. Many adolescents lack the cognitive skills to understand the connections between their actions and long-term consequences (Brindis, 1991). Parents, educators and communities all face the challenge of creating environment that support and nurture good sexual health. Young people need family-life education programmes which are otherwise known as sexuality education which refers to curricula designed to provide information that will help young people make healthy decision and choices (Brindis, Pittman, Reys, 1991). This programme models in teaches them to have positive worth, be responsible, understanding an acceptance of diversity and sexual health.
Many in-school adolescents still believe that family-life education would encourage “sexual experimental” and several studies have been conducted to determine whether family-life education programme actually increase young people’s sexual involvement. One of these is the land mark study commissioned by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1993 which conclusively showed that contrary to long-held beliefs.

No significant relationship exists between receiving formal sexuality education and initiating sexual activity. Rather, sexuality education result in postponement or reduction in the frequency of sexual activity and more effective use of contraception and adoption of safe behaviour (Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 1991). Instead of informing adolescent only about the health risk and potential negative consequence associated with sexual activity, adult need to provide young people with more balance messages. Adolescents need accurate and comprehensive. Instead of informing adolescent only about the health risk and potential negative consequence associated with sexual activity, adult need to provide young people with more balance messages. Adolescents need accurate and comprehensive education about sexuality to practice health sexual behaviour as adults. Early exploitative or risky sexual activity may lead to health and sexual problems such as unwanted pregnancy and sexuality transmitted disease including Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

The in-school adolescents need to receive clear, protective messages about sexual decision making, but they need to hear affirming messages about healthy relationships and healthy sexuality. Sexuality is more than “sexual activity”. It deal with many aspects of life including biological, gender roles, body image and interpersonal relationships, thought, believe, values attitudes, feelings and sexual behaviour. Therefore, it is important to study the relevance of the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent in Ifelodun Local Government, Kwara State.


Statement of the problem

In Nigeria, like many developing countries adequate attention has not been given to the development of family-life education programmes despite the high rate of unwanted pregnancy, school dropouts STD/HIV/AIDS, sexual abuse drug abuse and many more among in-school adolescent. Efforts by Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to design and implement in junior and senior secondary school, family-life education and sexual behaviour curricular with the hope of reducing adolescent pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) are yet to yield expected results. The assumption is that if adolescent are positively influenced by the family-life education programmes received in schools, it is likely to have great impact on their sexual relationships and overall, sexual and sexual adjustment.

A study carried out by population reference Bureau (2000) revealed that one third (36.5 million) of Nigeria total population of 123 million are youth between the ages of 10- 24 (The Bureau, 2000). By 2005, the number of Nigeria youth will exceed 57 million (United Nations, 1999). Lack of sexual health information and services places these young one at risk for early pregnancy, abortion, dropout, sexually transmitted infections (STI), and HIV/AIDS. In additions, early marriage and child bearing limit youths educational and employment opportunities after school. Yet effective innovative programmes can provide in-school adolescent with the sexual health-information and services they need.

Over 16% of teenage female reported first sexual intercourse by age 15. Among young woman age 20 – 24 nearly half (49, 4%) reported first sex by age 15. among these ages 20 – 24, 36.3% reported first sexual intercourse by 18 (the commission, 2000). In one survey of sexually experienced teens, over 13% of woman and over 27% of men reported exchanging money, gifts, or favours for sex in the previous 12 months (The Commission 2000).

In 1999, Nigeria’s adolescent fertility rate was 111-births per 1,000 young girls aged 15 – 19 and average Nigeria woman have more than five births during their life time. Teenage mothers were more likely prone to senior complications than older woman during delivery, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality for both mothers and infants. Performing or seeking for an abortion is illegal in Nigeria, except to save a woman’s life. Yet experts estimate that more than 600,000 Nigerian woman obtain abortions each year (Henshaw, etal, 1998).

Otoide (2001) stated that, one third of woman obtaining abortions were in-school adolescents. His hospital based studies showed that up to 80% of Nigeria patients with abortion related to complications were in-school adolescents.

The parent study on how the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour programmes can influence the sexual behaviours of in-school adolescent was motivated by the study Hacker (2000). He stated that 19.2% of students said they have less information about contraception from their parents’ nor community health centre, classes or teachers. Therefore, the research wishes to determine how the knowledge of family life education can influence them positively.


Research Questions

The following are the research questions raised in to guide the conduct of this study:

  1. What is the knowledge level of in-school adolescent about family life education?
  2. What are the sexual` behaviours of in-school adolescent?
  3. Is there any difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of age?
  4. Is there any difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of religion?
  5. Is there any difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of gender?

Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated from the research questions raised.

  1. There is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents based on age.
  2. There is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents based on religion.
  3. There is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents based on gender.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to ascertain the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents in Ifelodun Local Government Area (L.G.A.). Also it is to determine their knowledge levels on family life education and know the sexual behaviour common among the in-school adolescents in the Local Government Area.
The study also is to ascertain if there is difference between the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent on the basis of age, religion and gender.


Significance of the Study

The importance of a well-organized, efficient and effective family life education programme is a fundamental need to any modern nation, and this is a universal truism. A country is which the in-school adolescent are well informed is assured of prosperity and a well adjusted citizenry. This study is therefore tremendously significant in the sense that its findings would provide adolescents and parents with ample data on the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescents.

The findings of this study would benefit psychologists and other helping professional who are interested in the development of appropriate sexuality programmes for adolescent among the Nigerian populace. The findings of this study are relevant to the schools, student, parents, counsellors, government and non-government agencies e.t.c. The students would be able to see the need to enhance themselves with the appropriate knowledge on family life programmes and know the sexual behaviour to avoid. Parents would benefit from the finding of the study. Parents will have better understanding on the sexual behaviour of their children and know how to foster right sexual behaviour in them. The study will help the school counsellor to guide the students appropriately.

The government will see the need to further finance the family life education, promote it in all schools and organize regular seminars or workshops for teaching in order for them to have a better understanding of the students they are leadings.

The findings of the study will benefit the helping professional or non-governmental agencies in organizing relevant seminars for the students and teachers, to know how to check vices among students and promotes chastity among in-school adolescents.


Scope of the Study

The researcher is concentrating mainly on the knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent in Ifelodun Local Government Area, Kwara State. The research selected six secondary schools in the local government area. The schools were junior and senior secondary schools.

The selections of the schools were when done using simple random sampling technique. The researcher randomly select 300 (Three hundred) students for the study from the selected school at Ifelodun Local Government Area, Kwara State. Therefore 50 students were been randomly selected from each of the selected schools.


Operational Definition of Terms

Adolescent:

A person between 10 – 19 years of age.

Adolescence:

A period between childhood and adulthood when a number of dramatic physical changes and important physical, emotional and social development occur.

Family-life Education:

Also called sexuality education, sexual and family health promotion, family living and life skill education are designed to provide information that will help young people make healthy decision and choices about their sexuality.

Sexual Behaviour:

Refers to the behaviour that provides pleasure and possible arousal of the sexual organs. Sexual behaviour, it is what people do sexually with other or themselves, how they present themselves sexually, how they talk and act.


Chapter Five


Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

Introduction

This chapter focuses on the discussion of the findings of the study to be able to deduce a logical conclusion that will be helpful to adolescent, teachers, parents, school administrators, government and Non-Governmental Organizations etc, and make reasonable suggestions or recommendations that will further enhance future study on this area or field of study.


Discussion

The discussion of the finding of the present study is done with reference to the hypotheses in chapter one as well as the result presented in tabular form in chapter four. Hypothesis one stated that, there is no significant difference between knowledge of family life education and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent base on age. The hypothesis was rejected. This finding is in line with the findings of Thornton (1990) who found that factors within the individual that are associated with sexual behaviour include age, self-esteem and attitude about sexuality.
This finding is so because the age difference from individual to individual varies and this goes a long way in determining the sexual behaviour and knowledge of family life education in-school adolescent. Late adolescent are expected to be more mature in their knowledge on family life education and sexual behaviour compared to early adolescents.

Hypothesis two stated that, there is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school ado1lescent base on religion. The hypothesis was rejected. This finding however shows a correlation in Kirby (1992) who states that adolescent exposed to family life education programmes had greater knowledge about sexual intercourse, pregnancy, the consequence of child bearing and in relation to their religion indication are likely to avoid unprotected intercourse and develop a health sexual behaviour.

Holder (2000) stated that in a study of youth age 11 – 25, respondents who were not sexually active scored significantly higher than sexually active youth on the importance of religion in their lives and reported more connections to friends whom they considered to be religious or spiritual. These claims also correspond with the finding of this study.

Hypothesis three stated that, there is no significant difference between knowledge of family life and sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent base on gender. The hypothesis was rejected. This finding agreed with Whitebeck, Hoyt, Miller, and Kao (1992) argument that male and female in-school adolescents who are exposed to family life education are expected to be knowledgeable and comported in their sexual behaviour compared to their unexpected counterparts.


Conclusion

The finding of the present study has far reaching implications for psychologists, medical and other helping professionals as well as policy makers who are saddled with the responsibility of providing and implementing welfare programmes for adolescent.

There is urgent need for behaviour modification programmes targeted specifically at reducing/modifying the trend of sexual behaviour observed among the adolescents. The sexuality educator should have high moral standard that the in-school can imitate and ensure that adolescent really understand the concepts of the family life education programmes.


Recommendations

Cognizant of the fact that this is a landmark study in the psychological inquiry of sexual behaviour of adolescent, it is hoped that the findings and implication adduced from the present study would guide those saddled with the development of appropriate intervention for this group of youth in Nigeria.

It also envisages that the contribution made by this humble attempt has the only extended frontiers of knowledge in this area but also stimulated interest for further research.

Therefore, the following recommendation was deduce from the study:

  1. Parents should be deeply involved in modifying the sexual behaviour of in-school adolescent since they stand as the primary education of children.
  2. The adolescents should be made to be able to count the cost of all his/her sexual behaviour.
  3. The sexuality educator should have high moral standard that the in-school adolescent can imitate.
  4. In sexuality educator should be able to make the in-school adolescent understand the full concepts of family life education programme.
  5. The family life education programmes should be financed by the government and other non-governmental bodies because the knowledge will build health sexual behaviour in in-school adolescent and
  6. The family life education programme should be allowed and done in every school in the federation.

Suggestions for Further Research

A number of suggestion for further research emerged from the present study.

An area of research enquiry for the future could be to ascertain patterns and methods for the teaching of family life education to adolescent.

Another area for future research investigation could also be stress and coping styles of the educators and how this is related to the psychological attributes of adolescents.

An assessment of the psychological attributes of adolescent in Nigeria is an additional area of research that could provide ample baseline.

Another area of future research is that family life education should be nationally accepted in all schools (both private and public).

Also, other variable like family background, school discipline and school environment could also be considered influence that affect adolescent sexual behaviour in future researchers and lastly, parents influence in sexual behaviour of adolescent can be research in future.


Knowledge Of Family Life Education And Sexual Behaviour Of In-School Adolescent


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