Perception Of Secondary School Teachers On Sex Education

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Perception Of Secondary School Teachers On Sex Education


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the perception of secondary school teachers on sex education using some selected secondary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to assess teachers perception on the need for teaching sex education in secondary schools, assess teachers perception on the effectiveness of sex education in cautioning sexual behaviour of secondary schools, and assess teachers perception on the factors affecting the teaching of sex education in secondary schools. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of teachers of some selected secondary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that he need for teaching sex education in secondary schools includes: to provides teenagers with a wholistic knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, Hiv/Aids and the likes of them, gives young people the knowledge and skills they need for a lifetime of good sexual health, learn how to have healthy relationships, make informed decisions about sex. to develop general life-skills such as communication, negotiation, decision-making assertion and listening. The study also revealed that sex education is effective in cautioning the sexual behaviour of secondary school students. Therefore, it is recommended that the education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences.. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

The concept of sex education and its introduction in junior secondary schools has witnessed much controversies and misconception by many teachers, parents, the society and students. The concept of sex education which is sometimes called sexuality education or sex and relationship education attracts a plethora of definitions from different people. According to Frimpong (2010), sex education is “the systematic attempt to promote the healthy awareness in the individual on matters of his/her sexual development, functioning, behavior and attitudes through direct teaching”.

Similarly, the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) in Njoku (2008), sees sex education as “a planned process of education that fosters the acquisition of factual information, the formation of positive attitudes, beliefs and values as well as the development of skills to cope with the biological, psychological, socio­cultural, and spiritual aspects of human sexuality’. From these definitions, it can be deduced that sex education is a deliberate, planned and organized learning experience in the aspect of human sexuality which is intended to equip young people with the requisite skills and adequate knowledge which will enable them to develop positive attitude on sex related issues as well as to take rational decisions in line with societal expectations. It is important to note that sex education was not just incorporated into social studies for knowledge acquisition but to help young people develop attitudes, values, goals and practices that are based on sound knowledge which will enable them to express their sexual and mating impulses in a manner that is socially and ethically acceptable as well as personally satisfying (Abdu 2006 and Okafor in Bozimo and Ikwumelu, 1999). The concept of sex education in Nigerian schools is not a new concept in Nigeria. Adepoju (2005) and Abdu (2006) postulated that traditional form of sex education and family life education has been in existence where kinship systems, age grade and coming – of – age ceremonies or initiation ceremonies where the youths were tutored about manhood and womanhood. It was purely biological and cultural, while various methods of contraceptives were just kept at the domain of married people and kept secret. Many young people were kept in the dark as they were not opportuned to be properly educated on family life and sex education because their training was on “dos and don’ts”.

Traditionally, sex education was to be given to every child and adolescents by his/her immediate family but these practice has been eroded by the influence of modernization, western civilization, and collapsing family life; thereby leaving the young ones at the mercy of the wider society and other socializing agents who may not give accurate information that can assist the young ones in their transition to adulthood.

This vacuum in the life of adolescents is what the school needed to the fill through the teaching of sex education in social students. The term sex goes beyond the realm of sex organs, instructions and act of sex organs as individuals are made to believe to make a breakthrough in the life of human relation among and between sex partners. Sex education is the instruction about sex and human sexuality. Sex is an important effect on the human life of an individual and almost everyone in the society including children wants to know about it.

Traditionally, children are not supposed to receive information about sex at all. They many a time, learn about sex through their friends, books, television, pornographic films either from the magazines or internets and sex movies. Correct and factual information should be given to teenagers about the sudden development in their bodies. During this period, the girls develop breast, menstruation starts, pelvic borne broadens these starts at the age of eleven to twelve years and in the boys between fourteen to fifteen years. The sexual organs mature the widening of the chest and enlargement of the lynx which causes breaking of the voice.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Ignorance of sex and its associated problems is prevalent in and among secondary school students. The life of students are shattered with the passing of incorrect information among themselves, they get misled by others. Today, the problems resulting from the lack of sex education to our youth are numerous. They are unwanted pregnancies, increase abortion, high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases and high rates of sexual promiscuity. All these have led to inability to concentrate, poor school performance, deterioration of mental health of students, high rate of school drop outs, increase in illiteracy and over population. Consequently, the educational opportunity of Nigeria youth is greatly affected and this posses a great loss to the society. Religious bodies view sex education as premature, dangerous and likely to lead to sexual promiscuity. To behavioural scientists, the introduction of sex education is proper. However, despite the increasing sexual problems, parents and schools are still not providing teenagers with proper knowledge of sex. Teachers need to understand that it is essential to educate their students about sex.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to asses the perception of secondary school teachers on sex education. The specific objectives include:

  1. Assess teachers perception on the need for teaching sex education in secondary schools.
  2. Assess teachers perception on the effectiveness of sex education in cautioning sexual behaviour of secondary schools.
  3. Assess teachers perception on the factors affecting the teaching of sex education in secondary schools.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the need for teaching sex education in secondary schools.
  2. How effective is sex education in cautioning the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.
  3. What are the factors affecting the teaching of sex education in secondary schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

  • H0: Sex education has no significant impact on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.
  • H1: Sex education has a significant impact on the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will give correct and factual information and understanding of students towards the teaching of sex education. It will enlighten our students and prevent them from developing a sense of guilt, horror, disgust or fear of sex especially when they perform sex act of the right time for right purpose and with the right person. It will enable students to develop self­respect and self­control with due consideration. Developmental tasks of becoming responsible men and women in future.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of sex education among youths in Nigerian secondary schools.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to assess perception of secondary school teachers on sex education. The study will be carried among secondary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Adolescent:

Transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period of puberty to legal adulthood.

Gender:

The categorizing of an individual as being male or female.

Sexual Behaviour:

These are actions that lead to reproduction and stimulation of sexual organs for satisfaction without conception.

Sexuality:

Integral part of who one is, believe, feel and response to others.

Sexuality Education:

The teaching and learning process that deals with sexuality.


1.10 Organisation of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the perception of secondary school teachers on sex education using some selected secondary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the perception of secondary school teachers on sex education using some selected secondary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State as a case study. The study was specifically carried out to assess teachers perception on the need for teaching sex education in secondary schools, assess teachers perception on the effectiveness of sex education in cautioning sexual behaviour of secondary schools, and assess teachers perception on the factors affecting the teaching of sex education in secondary schools.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were teachers of some selected secondary schools in Ikorodu, Lagos State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The need for teaching sex education in secondary schools includes: to provides teenagers with a wholistic knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, Hiv/Aids and the likes of them, gives young people the knowledge and skills they need for a lifetime of good sexual health, learn how to have healthy relationships, make informed decisions about sex. to develop general life-skills such as communication, negotiation, decision-making assertion and listening.
  2. Sex education is effective in cautioning the sexual behaviour of secondary school students.
  3. The factors affecting the teaching of sex education in secondary schools includes: beliefs about sexuality, restrictive laws and policies, lack of training on sexuality education to health workers/head teachers and religious leaders, the subject not part of primary education curriculum.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences.
  2. School managements of secondary schools should periodically invite guest lecturers to give health talks to students outside the normal student learning process so as to increase the knowledge of sexuality health.
  3. Nollywood film producers and film writers should write and produce films and short plays on risky sexual behaviours and its effect to help sensitize the nation television viewers on risky sexual behaviours.
  4. Sexuality education must be treated with utmost relevance by all parties just like any other subject in order to keep on meeting its objectives and even exceed it.
  5. Training and workshops should be organized for teachers to help them to be adequately prepared to deliver quality sexuality education.

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