Study On The Causes Of STD Among Secondary School Students In Mbaitoli L.G. A.

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Study On The Causes Of STD Among Secondary School Students In Mbaitoli L.G. A.


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the causes of STD among secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. The study was specifically carried out to determine the level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors, determine the causes of STDs among secondary school students, and determine the level of students awareness of the health implications of STDs. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of some selected secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors is low. Furthermore, the findings showed that the causes of STDs among secondary school students includes: Possession of Multiple Sexual Partner, having Sex Under Intoxication, unprotected Sex,oral Sex, anal Sex. Therefore, it is recommended that there is need to organise functional literacy programmes for porters to build their capacity in basic literacy and numeracy so they can identify and understand some basic STI issues and behave appropriately towards infection prevention. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be curable or incurable, but are most often modifiable diseases or infections which are mainly contracted through unprotected sexual intercourse. The curable STIs include syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia, while the incurable but modifiable STIs include human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis B, human immune virus (HIV) and herpes simplex [1,2]. According to WHO, 20% of people living with human immune virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are in their second decade of life and, each year, one out of every twenty young people contract an STI [1]. Indulging in unprotected sexual intercourse suggests a high-risk predisposition to unintended and unwanted pregnancies and STIs, including AIDS, among adolescents and young people. Globally, 33.3 million people are estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS. It is said that sub-Saharan Africa accounts for nearly 22.5 million of the people living with HIV/AIDS, making it the most HIV/AIDS-affected region in the world. Amongst all leading killer diseases globally, HIV/AIDS ranks third, while in Africa, it is the primary cause of death among people between 15 and 29 years of age [3,4].

Additionally, despite a larger commitment to STD teaching in schools, the sensitivity of sexuality and juvenile behavior seems to block STD education.

Indeed, experts believe that today’s secondary schools’ sexual attitudes and practices have gotten more liberal and tolerant (Reiss, 1994, Roche, 1996, Bell and Chaskas, 1990). Additionally, these experts noted that premarital sex is quite prevalent in society. According to Unachukwu and Nwankwo (1998), many of those who did not participate in coitus throughout their years of secondary school education (a very small percentage, in fact) will do so prior to marriage. Those who do not engage in sexual activity before to marriage seem to be a minority in current culture.
In Nigeria, traditional ideals on the sacredness of sex and the role of sex in reproduction have been misused in favor of permissive sexual behavior. There is evidence that teenagers in Nigeria, particularly secondary school students, engage in coital sex and premarital sexual activity at a significant rate (Onyemelukwu, 1993). In light of this, the global health organization (WHO, 1993) called the world’s attention to the growth in the prevalence and spread of sexually transmitted diseases in unmistakable terms. Since then, no individual or organization has contested the assertion. Rather than that, a slew of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have been found and claimed to be widespread. Indeed, Webster (1992) observed that the prevalence of STD infection has grown considerably in recent years, to the point that it is now considered as having reached epidemic proportions.

The tragedy of premarital sexuality in teenagers is that they participate in frequent sexual behaviors without enough knowledge of the consequences (Obikeze, 1997). In another perspective, Achalu (1996) underlines the increased risk of infection for individuals who participate in high-risk activities such as indiscriminate sex with several partners or those who chose partners from the streets. Additionally, Ijezie (1997) said that sexual activities such as anal intercourse, oral intercourse, homosexuality, heterosexuality, and deep kissing are all related with an increased risk of obtaining these illnesses, particularly the HIV virus. Additionally, Owolabi (1995) argued that a portion of the STD incidence in Nigeria is attributable to sexual promiscuity, homosexuality, a lack of sexual education, self-medication, and drug misuse among secondary school students. Chelk (2016) observes that the rate at which secondary school boys and girls visit pharmacies for condoms and tablets is increasing in an effort to reduce sexually transmitted infections. On one instance, similar tablets were discovered in the school backpacks of multiple senior secondary students who seemed to be unaware of their knowledge. To this end, the researcher wishes to ascertain on the causes of STD among secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been proved that sexual promiscuity is on the rise among adolescents, particularly students. Adolescents, particularly those in secondary schools, engage in unsafe sexual activities, and this raises their risks of developing sexually transmitted diseases or infections (Ogunbanjo, 2012). It is no longer an ancient legend regarding the occurrence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), as it used to be demoted as superstitious. Sexually transmitted diseases exist, much as the famous tagline “AIDS is real,” but the issue is that adolescents, particularly secondary school students, who engage in sexual activities seem to have little or no knowledge about STDs or the proper attitude toward them (Mati, 2015).

In a drive to explore and experiment with sex and its connected activities, adolescents appear hide in absolute ignorance about the presence, symptoms, mechanism of transmission, control and correct attitude towards sexually transmitted diseases (Hamilton, 2012). However, ignorance, they argued, is not a justification for the terrible consequences of acquiring STDs. Sequel to the previous remark, this research is focused on determining students’ knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically analyse the causes of STD among secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. Specifically, the study aims at the following:

  1. Determine the level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors.
  2. Determine the causes of STDs among secondary school students.
  3. Determine the level of students awareness of the health implications of STDs.

1.4 Research Question

The study will be guided by the following questions;

  1. What is the level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors?
  2. What are the causes of STDs among secondary school students?
  3. What is the level of students awareness of the health implications of STDs?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: The level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors is high.
  • Ha: The level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors is low.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study if published will be of immense benefits to the ministry of Education, teachers, parents, curriculum developers and the general public.

It is hoped that the findings of this study will spur the Federal Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education to articulate effective programmes on sex education for Secondary School Students. It is hoped that these ministries will train and equip peer educators who will further educate secondary school students on the right knowledge and attitude towards sexually transmitted diseases; steering through it’s related health hazards and consequences.

The study will also help teachers and counselors to know and acknowledge students knowledge and attitude to sexually transmitted diseases and how best they can help students in the area of sexuality.

The result of the study will help to reawaken parents and teachers on their roles in educating the adolescents on sexual matters. It will at the same time help to challenge our adolescents to healthy sexual relationships in order to avoid contacting HIV virus and STDs, unwanted pregnancies and abortion among others.

To the general public, it is hoped that the findings of this study will; and especially Elders and the Clergy, they would also acknowledge their personal dispositions to guard the adolescents in words and action towards wholesome attitude and knowledge to sexually transmitted diseases.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally analysis the causes of STD among secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. However, the respondents for the study will be obtained from some selected secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State.


1.8. Limitations of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents.

In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed.

More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other schools, local governments, states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Sexual Behaviour:

This is a process by which humans and other animals demonstrate and/or express sexuality.

Pre-Marital Sex:

This is any sexual activity with an opposite sex partner or with same sex partner before he/she has started a marriage life.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs):

Theses are infections that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact.


1.10 Organisations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the causes of STD among secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the causes of STD among secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State. The study was specifically carried out to determine the level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors, determine the causes of STDs among secondary school students, and determine the level of students awareness of the health implications of STDs.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were some selected secondary school students in Mbaitoli LGA, Imo State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The level of students knowledge of sexual risk behaviors is low.
  2. The causes of STDs among secondary school students includes: Possession of Multiple Sexual Partner , having Sex Under Intoxication, unprotected Sex,oral Sex, anal Sex.
  3. The level of students awareness of the health implications of STDs is low.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. There is need to organise functional literacy programmes for porters to build their capacity in basic literacy and numeracy so they can identify and understand some basic STI issues and behave appropriately towards infection prevention.
  2. There is a need to implement comprehensive adolescent and young people’s friendly health services to increase students’ access to sexual and reproductive health information and services.
  3. There is a need to ensure that control programs redirect efforts at sexual behaviors that put young people at greater risk of STIs, and target young adolescents before their sexual debut.
  4. Health-care workers should educate female students and their male partners on the need for them to seek for help concerning their sexual health issues.

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