The Impact Of HIV/AIDS Awareness On The Sexual Behaviour Of Youth And Undergraduate
This study was designed to investigate the impact of HIV/AIDS awareness on the sexual behaviour of youths/under graduate. This research instruments consists of a sample questionnaire and oral interviews. The sample used consists of 120 undergraduates selected from College of Education, Ekiadolor-Benin through random sampling.
In this data analysis, the following finding were discovered
- Abstinence from sex or have mutual faithful sexual relationship with an uninfected partner.
- Making safer sex part of life, and the use of condom.
- Careful practice and use of blood products by health workers.
- Discovering cultural practices that allow for the spread of HIV
- The use of sterile instruments by health workers, barbers and in the processes of making tribal marks, circumcision, ear and nose piercing, manicure, pedicure etc.
1.1 Background of the Study
Aids means acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Aids are a medical diagnosis for a combination of illness which results from a specific weakness or damage of the immune system. The immune system defends the body against infection tumors, and disease.
This immune deficiency is caused by a virus called Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and such infected individuals have no prior history of immunology abnormality or nay other cause of immune suppression like chronic starvation, malnutrition, tuberculosis or malignancies. When HIV gets into the body system of its victim it continues to multiply and destroy the body immune system. Having damaged the immune system, HIV opens the body to many diseases and infections. Theses infections are called opportunistic disease”
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a deadly disease that was first diagnosed in June 1981 by some medical doctors in the United State of America it has since then, seen spreading all over the world at an exponential rate with about 33.4 million people now infected with HIV/AIDS world wide, and over 22 millions of such persons lives in Africa (the Nigeria Tribute 9thDecember 19998) and (UN report).
However, the pathetic things about this HIV/AIDS are it has no cure for now. It is known as a pandemic outbreak because of its prevalence and occurrence at several places at the same time throughout the world. So far an estimated 22 million people have died of AIDS globally, and in 2000 alone 3 million deaths were recorded (Awake November 8th 2002)
On account of this, AIDS is now tagged with such names as “The killer disease” “The silent killer,” “The scourge of our time,” “The new sensation,” “The plague from God,” “The king of STDS,” “The end of the road,” “no cure,” “exterminator” “no respect” to mention just a few. All these are used to qualify the destructive nature rate of occurrence and spread, prevalence, no class distinction and no curable characters of AIDS United nation (UN) report says that the disease revels the greatest epidemic of history.
Awareness means to know, to have knowledge of a thing. So AIDS/HIV awareness is to have knowledge of the body deadly disease. This study is focusing on youth knowledge of IHV/AIDS it causes, effects and the transmit ion.
It sis a known fact that many people still do not believe that AIDS is a reality (these people have misconception on nature perception of HIV/AIDS vary from the assumption that one act of sexual intercourse with an infected persons cannot lead to infection, that they can recognize HIV positive persons by their appearance, that AIDS is a white man’s disease that nothing to do with the black that AIDS is a threat used by adults to deter young people from fornication and immorality, that AIDS can not adequately and completely be avoided because of very numerous ways of infection which that hold includes. Unsterile instrument with AIDS victims, and sexual intercourse with animals, some set of people believe that HIV/AIDS is a strategic fiction which white men have newly fabricated against the developing countries in particular so that they can sell their condoms, and at the same time control birth rates of developing countries through the adoration of using condom and abstinences from sexual intercourse.
However, it may be thought of that there is just proper awareness of HIV/AIDS but this through is wrong. Because, most youth have become aware of the danger of contracting HIV/AIDS. But due to the fact that most youths are sexually active, especially of school age and those at tertiary institution they still indulge in illicit pre-marital sex at any give opportunity. There is evidence of a high rate of youth contact sex and premature involvement among Nigerians adolescent students (Esian, 1974; Owuamanam, 1982). The age and rate at which Nigeria youths have their sexual experience and this increasing rate of their involvement in sexual activity has given a great concern to all Nigeria. The results of this are unwanted pregnancies illegal abortion; abandoning of unwanted babies high rate of STDA, premature deaths, prostitution; sexual exploitation and rapes etc.
Inspite of this increasing concern for the dreaded disease AIDS. The knowledge of how the disease is transmitted and prevented has continued to be fraught with speculation, particularly in Nigeria where large segments of the population have not seen real causes of HIV/AIDS patient. (Odujirin and Akinade 1995). Hence this research work is focusing on the level of awareness of its youths about HIV/AIDS. The focus on youth is deliberate attempt because youths constitution a bridge were HIV/AIDS can be adequately checked and eventually prevented and eradicate; they make up the lower segment of the active population, and future development of any nation rests on health youthful population. The most common way which HIV/AIDS spread in our communities is through sexual intercourse, and youth fall into the categories of world’s sexually active adult age of 15 to 49 according to UN report.
The youth do not in premarital sex and antiracial sex as already mentioned, but form part of commercial sex workers (CSWS) or prostitutes. A number of them travel abroad through any means for this purpose, and the consequence is avoidably continued increase in the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Having known that “youth are the leaders of tomorrow” that a nation powerful resources is human and that youths comprise that large population of labour forces. It is imperative, therefore that maximum care and massive awareness, a re-orientation should be given to the youth in any society to keep them in good health for life continuity and optimum productive output necessary for development.
As a result of these problems, highlighted above, this study will undertake to show much youth are aware of this scourging disease and how the youth are responding to this awareness.
1.2 Objectives of this Study
- The study was carried out in order to show the effects of HIV/AIDS awareness on our youths.
- The study would also go to show the attitude of youths towards this deadly disease in order for the society to increase its education awareness and even a proper re-orientation.
- From this study more youth would be greatly affected positive, because it would go a long way at preventing them from furthering engaging themselves in indiscriminate and other manners of sexual activities.
- The study was carried out to change’s people’s perception to the reality that HIV/AIDS disease is real and its spreading.
1.3 Statement of Problem
A lot of works have been done about AIDS, especially in terms of prevention and findings cure. Government, non governmental organization (NGDs) or groups/agencies and individuals have put in so much financial, human and materials resources in the war against AIDS. Inspite of all these, the disease has continued to spread at an alarming rate. It has been observed that most AIDS carries must have contacted the disease in their youth age. This is true of most developed and undeveloped countries. This stems from the fact that most adolescents and youths are aware, they are not conscious of the consequences in terms of the risk and severity of the disease.
This can be attributed to the fact that there is no adequate body of information or a coherent reproductive health and Family Life Education (FLE) to guide adolescents and youths grow into normal and responsible adulthood in Nigeria. Many affluent and poor young one like grow up sufficient parental nurture and guidance, because parents now spend most of their time looking for means of survival and sustenance. This underscores a situation where adequate knowledge about their own development and its implications. They lack knowledge what protective and promotional health measures and services exist, where to get these services and how to utilize the services.
Awareness of HIV/AIDS encompasses its meaning, its cause, mode of transmission, method of prevention and knowledge of its consequences; and it goes together with perception of HIV/AIDS. Thus, there is need for an examination of the level of awareness and perception of HIV/AIDS among youths. And then attempt to determine if their adequate awareness will help in the prevention and eventual eradication of HIV/AIDS.
1.4 Definition of Some Terms Relevant in the Study
This is the act of avoiding sexual intercourse with any partner; this is one of the best ways to guide against the infection of HIV/AIDS and other STDs.
Condom or Sheath:
It is a rubber covering worn over the male sex organ (penis) before sexual intercourse; it is also used as means of birth control and a protection against other sexual transmitted diseases. It can be referred to as the contraception for man. Recently, however female condom has been on use by women and it is called “fermidom” in Europe. The use of condom reduces the risk of veneral infection and the spread of AIDS.
It stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome of illness which result from a specific weakness or damage of the immune system. The immune system defends the body against infections tumors and diseases. This immune deficiency is cause by a virus called human deficiency virus (HIV).
This is the practice of taking the man’s sex organ (penis) out of the woman’s organ (vagina) before ejaculation or before the sex act is completed, to prevent the woman from being pregnant. It is also known as withdrawal method.
This sex act between a man and a woman or between male and female.
It is the act or practice of preventing sex from resulting in the birth of a child, contraceptive is a drug or any object or materials used inside or outside sex organs as a means of preventing an act of sex from resulting in the birth of a child, a stopping the ovum from being fertilized, contraceptives includes pills, condoms, (both male and female) cap (Dutch cap or diaphragm intrauterine device (IUD) etc.
WHO (World Health Organization) 1978 defines health as a state of complete physical mental and social well being of the individual, not merely the absence or infirmity” it is condition of being sound in mind and body especially freedom from physical disease or pain good health enable people to enjoy life and have the opportunity to achieve the goals hey have set for themselves. To achieve and maintain good health, people must have basis knowledge about the human body and how it functions and human environment only then can they determine what will or what will not help or damage their health.
This is a disease that is wide spread over a large area. Occasionally, an infectious disease becomes highly contagious and sweeps through a community. This condition is called an epidemic. When an epidemic occurs at several places through the world at the same time, it is called pandemic outbreak because of its prevalence and occurrence worldwide.
Perception is the way people, individual or group of people look at certain things, the way they regard a phenomenon or their beliefs about what it is like. Perception is the process by which we receive, notice, understand and interpret information with our senses from the world around us. The world around us consists of various kinds of level of physical energy. Our knowledge of the world comes through out sense organs which reach to these energies factors affecting perception are receptions, the brains, learning emotion and motivation various factors influenced to receive and process stimulate from the environment. Our perception also reflects our emotions, needs, expectation and learning. The process of perception is not merely a physical act involving our sense of seeing, smelling, hearing etc. rather it is a complex act that includes mental and psychological as well as physical aspects of behaviour.
It is a process of making an individual develops a positive and wholesome attitude towards sex. It is giving of correct information about the meaning functions and abuse of sexual relations to young people and helping to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexual responsibility on the youths. And, it helps to remove prejudice and misconceptions by providing young people with valuable knowledge about sex. Other related terms include health education, family life education (FLE) and HIV/AIDS education starts from home and concerns teachers, government and non governmental agencies. Sexual transmitted disease is a short word for veneral disease a disease that can be contacted mainly during sexual intercourse with affected person (s). STD includes the following AIDS, chancroid, chlanmydia, herpes, gonorrhea, wart syphilis, tricho moniasis, and others.
Sexual behaviour is the various sexual act which engaging by people. These include sexual intercourse between a man and woman, oral sex, sexual intercourse between a man and another man (homosexual), and sex between a woman and anot6her woman (lesbian).
Sexual awareness is the knowledge, perceptive or realization of the modes, attitude and the general behaviour the goes with sexual acts.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
The analysis of the results of this study reveals the following one that there is a direct relationship between the level of awareness and perception of the causes and consequences of HIV/AIDS among youth or undergraduates of the college of education, ekiadolor. Also there is existence of high level of awareness of HIV/AIDS as well as a high knowledge of its consequences among respondents that constituted the same size three, that levelof awareness is not demonstrated in the prevention of risky sexual behaviour.
It is clear form the study that through youth generally are aware of HIV/AIDS and had fairly accurate information about in unfortunately they are not quick at taking actions that would prevent of educe the risk of STDS and HIV/AIDS transmission.
The study carefully carried out on the students of the college of education, ekiadolor, the students were selected from all the department in the college. The study was mainly to find out the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS or undergraduates and whether it has had great impact on their sexual behaviour from the finding, it was discovered that their awareness of the causes and consequences had greatly influrnced their sexual behaviour, either making them to take preventive measure or limit their sexual escapades. Also, it was discovered that the spread to HIV/AIDS was as a result of the wrong perception of notion, most undergraduates heard about HIV/AIDS some believe that they cannot contract it and lastly, this study show that the lack of adequate information about HIV/AIDS is not resonsible for the spread of the disease which will make them to prevent the disease.
Most youth or undergraduates do not take the consequences of contracting HIV/AIDS into cognizance, rather they are most carried away by the pleasure of the sexual act, and this has often resulted in the spread of the disease. Also most female undergraduates have turned into prostitutes, they sleep with dfferent men, just to make money and have those materials things likeothe students whose parents are rich are as such the can do anything to belong to such class. The male undergraduates too feel that to be a guy is to be able to sleep with as many girls as possible, and no matter how careful anyone can be, when you have multiple partner, there iis high risk of contracting the disease 50 basically the sexual behaviour of undergraduates is becoming something else even homosexuality, lesbianism and other form of immoral sexual act have taken over compuses. So rising spread of HIV/AIDS can be attributed to such sexual behaviour
It is herby recommended that these research finding is not final. They might not be necessarily applied to make generalization about youths awareness and perception of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria because of the following time factor or constraint, financial constraint, smallness of sample size and the research being carried out only on undergraduates at college of education, ekiadolor.
Besides, the following are recommended to help individuals, government and subsequent researchers on this very topic.
A. government should introduce and encourage sex education in school curriculum. It should be given in schools either as a subjcet to be studied or as orientation lecture/awareness or as symposium. Since you get information about sex and sexuality through sources that may not be reliable (e.g from oeer, textbooks, media, films, magazines, novels e.t.c). it is therefore necessary to provide sex education in schools.
Sex education, regarding as a process of making an individual develop a positive and wholesome attitude towards sex so as to avert risk associated with valuable knowledge about sex such as teenage pregnancy, has many advantages which also include the following:
- It helps youth to associated with sex because know through sex education perfect and informed understanding olf the physiology or functioning of their own bodies and how to relate with opposite sex
- It helps to eliminate fears and anxieties that are related to individual’s sexual development and adjustment.
- It helps to develop objective understanding and attitudes about sex in all it manifestation in the initial and in others.
- It produces enough knowledge about sexual aberrations (prostitution, sexual harassment, rape) to enable the individual protect himself of herself against exploitation and against injury to his physical and mental health.
- Finally, it will help to reduce the incidence of sexual transmitted disease.
B. Government should strongly support HIV/AIDS awareness campaign through public enlightenment. It is noted that the present AIDS awareness campaign could only succeed if it received wholehearted support of an highest level of government. Through federal government support.
C. Government should give AIDS education and counselling to identify HIV/AIDS victims on how to prevent the spread and how to live happily despite HIV/AID infection. Because of the nature of the diseases itself an elaborate frame work of emotional and practical support and care in the community, this is a heavy task for the statutory and voluntary social agencies (leshe 1990) this is with a view to averting a wide range of adverse emotional reactions that are regularly reported in HIV-positive people. HIV-positive people require, in addition to effective sex education, a great deal of counselling and support in order to cope with their tragic situation.
D. Everybody in society should be aware that the choice of hiv test before marriage in imperative
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