Assessment Of Sexual Health Behaviour Among Students Of Higher Institutions In Lagos

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Assessment Of Sexual Health Behaviour Among Students Of Higher Institutions In Lagos


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

A child‘s education starts from the home. Psychologists agree that the pattern of a person‘s character and socialization is laid within the five years of his life. During this period the greater part of the child‘s life is spent at home. The home serve as the bedrock of education in every child‘s life, because the first interaction start with the immediate environment, such as learning the mother tongue and interacting with the brothers and sisters in the home. The family lays the foundation of education before the child goes to school and the personality that the child takes to school is determined by the home. The father is to provide the necessary tools for the education of the children, while the mother is supposed to supplement the father‘s efforts in this regard.

Sex is a phenomenon currently ravaging higher institutions in Nigeria as many students are engaged in premarital and heterosexual relationships on campus, (Daniel 2011). Early, unprotected sexual intercourse among young persons can have negative consequences such as pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including humanimmunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). These conditions may result in high social, economic, and health costs for affected persons, their children, and society at large. Sexual health refers to a state of physical , emotional , mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; itStudies on sexual health behaviour of young people in Nigeria indicate that many adolescents and youths initiate sexual intercourse at an early age and engage in high-risk sexual behaviours.

Sexual behaviour in the teenage years is considered as a function of cohort, gender, and ethnic differences. Omissions in the research on sexual on sexual behaviour other than intercourse are highlighted. Possible biological, social, and social cognitive processes underlying teenage sexual behaviour are then considered. (American Psychologist, 2010) Sexual behaviour simply means the way and manner individuals react or conduct themselves towards everything that has to do with sexual intercourse (Nwagbo and Ubachukwu, 2001). In context behaviour may be defined as a total action of an adolescent in handling their sexual impulses. Sexual behaviour is the result of biological, psychological and social forces. Human sexual activities are shaped by the internal experience of being male and female that is, by a person‘s gender identity. Sexual behaviour is one of such situations in which adolescent‘s dual membership in the family and peer groups present them with conflicting normative standards. Since the mid 90s the age of technology has sky rocketed with computers, cell phones, radios, and televisions. People are constantly within immediate and easy access to the media. This persistent bombardment of the media in the everyday lives of today‘s society undoubtedly wields numerous, socio- cultural consequences especially upon the youth. Today‘s adolescents grow up in a social environment that is considerably more liberal and permissive in sexual attitudes than that of their parents. The impact of the negative consequences of this situation on the sexual behaviour and sexual health of Youths can be best understood through research and other observed reports. (Eze, 2000; in Ogunsanya 2005) A number of studies including those by co relational studies on sexual behaviour during adolescence show that there is a high prevalence of sexualactivity among Youths in Nigeria leading to high rate of teenage pregnancy, school dropout, academic under-achievement, abortions and maternal mortality, as well as infections with sexually transmitted diseases including HIV/AIDS. This tends to portray the fact that many Youths are involved in making self-destructive choices. Many Youths remain greatly misinformed about sexual relationships and their consequences. When Youths cling to their peers, it easily creates a driving force in them to get complete freedom from their parents control over them. In the quest for emancipation, such identification forces the child to stick to suggestions by age mates of the same sex. Pre-marital sex may represent an effort to succumb to peer group pressures. When Youths who have engaged in sex tell their friends for instance, that sex is fun, those not involved before want to experiment too. School is therefore one place where peer group influence is very strong. However, focusing on sexual behaviour in relation to school type in their study on sexual behaviour and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in the North East Zone, they found that students from boy‘s only schools were significantly more likely to have had sexual intercourse (18%) than those from the coeducational (14%) and girls‘ only schools (20%).

Concerns regarding sexual health of young adults have led to increasing intervention for those in the early phase of adolescent life, particularly inschool Youths. However, little attention has so far been given to young adults within the age range of late Youths and youths. Young people in institutions of higher learning, who are typically from the age of 18 to 25 years, have particularly been neglected in reproductive health programmes.While it is true that older Youths and youths, potentially have better access to reproductive health information and services, available information shows that their reproductive health knowledge and practice remains poor

This study will be aimed at an assessment of sexual health behaviour among students of higher institutions in Lagos (A Case Study Of University Of Lagos, Akoka) so as to provide information for the design of youth friendly reproductive and sexual health service.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Faulty adolescent sexual behaviour may lead to disaster socially, psychologically, academically or even death. This is even more probable in Nigeria society where little or no attention s given to sex education and the possible problem that may emanate from reckless sexual behaviour among Youths. Although the victims of such reckless sexual behaviour bear the brunt of their actions, but either directly or indirectly failure and blames lie with those responsible for correcting such recklessness, but failed to do so. Therefore, the problem of this study will be toassess the sexual health behaviour among students of higher institutions in Lagos (a Case Study Of University Of Lagos, Akoka). It is in view of this concerns that this study will becarried out to determine the sexual health behaviour among students of higher institutions in Lagos.


1.3 Objective of Study

The main purpose of this study will to assess the sexual health behaviour among students of higher institutions in Lagos (a Case Study Of University Of Lagos, Akoka).

Specifically the study will intend to:

  1. Identify the sexual health behaviour of Youths in University Of Lagos, Akoka.
  2. Ascertain students sexual knowledge level as a correlate of sexual health behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka
  3. Find out relationship between peer pressure and sexual health behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka.
  4. Ascertain the relationship between sexuality education and sexual health behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will guide the study:

  1. What is the sexual health behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka?
  2. What is the relationship between sexual knowledge level of Youths and their sexual behavior in University Of Lagos, Akoka?
  3. What is the relationship between peer pressure and sexual health behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka?
  4. What is the relationship between sexuality education and sexual behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka?
  5. What is the relationship between religious affiliation and sexual behaviour of students in University Of Lagos, Akoka?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The outcome of this study will be of benefit to the Youths, curriculum planners, ministry of education officials, policy makers, the school counsellors, teachers, government, and all stakeholders and the researchers. This is because the issue of sexual behaviour of Youths is a major burning issue that needs research investigation so as to document its abuses, severity and consequences. The findings of the study will sensitize the Youths on the risk of unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections and having multiple concurrent sexual partners. It will provide useful information on Youths who may be ignorant in sexual activities in school environment. This information will provide a basis for reducing the spread of Aids in society. This study will also enable government, curriculum planners, policy makers to understand sexual behaviour of adolescent students and device the means of improving on them and realize the constraints to these adolescent sexual behaviour students and organize workshops, mass media, and television and public enlightenment programme to unlearn theirlearned maladjustment sexual behaviour to adjusted one. Many adolescent students will benefit from this study. This is because they will know the merits of avoiding themselves from sexual activities that can lure them an infections, unwanted pregnancy and which will end them up in school drop out from the school system as a whole. The community and everybody that has a link with this student, schools will also benefit from this study. It will enable them to be at alert with the adolescent sexual behaviour in our educational system. This will sensitize them to participate activities in any programmes organize for this students in the school. Families and schools, neighbourhoods provide an environment within which Youths make decisions related to sexual activity on the whole, it will serves as a poll of data for researchers whenever they are carrying out studies on adolescent sexual behaviour. The study will also reveal the impact of social learning theory on students‘ behaviour. Consequently, this will serve as an implication for guidance and counselling.


1.6 Scope of the Study

In order to do in depth study the study will be limited to University Of Lagos, AkokaLagos State. The study will further be limited to the correlate of adolescent sexual health behaviour in particular the sexual behaviour of multiple partnership, teenage pregnancy, abortion, unprotected sex as they related to sexual knowledge, peer pressure influence parent relation and school influence.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study will have some limitations most especially in the area of data collection. Financial constraints as well as time available for the completion of the study are among other factors that might limit the scope of the study.


1.8 Organizations of the Study

The study will be subdivided into five (5) chapters; the chapter one will consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter will be a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter will be the methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter will centre around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter will consist of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.


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