Effect Of School Location And Sex Differentials On Student’s Achievement In Economics In Secondary Schools

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Effect Of School Location And Sex Differentials On Student’s Achievement In Economics In Secondary Schools


Abstract


The scope of this study borders on school location and sex differentials are correlates of academic achievement in Economics using Agbo Local government Area in Delta State as case study. The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher enrolled 136 participants for the study who are student and teachers in four(4) selected public and private secondary school in Agbo local government in Delta State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of 120 responses were received and validated for the study. Data was was presented in tables and frequencies. Result were analyzed using simple percentage which provided answers to the research questions. Hypothesis Test was conducted using T-test and Pearson correlation Statistical tool(SPSS). The result of the study revealed a significant difference in the academic performance of students in rural and urban secondary schools in Nigeria. These differences can be attributed to the favourable location advantage of the urban schools, infrastructural distribution, and differences in distribution of teaching staff amongst others, according to the research findings. he study therefore recommend Adequate classroom buildings to be provided in the public schools to help promote effective teaching for students improved academic achievement. Government and communities to ensure that students have access to the schools nearest to their areas of residence. More so, Efforts should be made by stakeholders to provide schools with functional libraries, well equipped with current reading reference materials irrespective of the location of the school. Qualified library assistants to be posted to schools to aid the students on the proper use of the library service enough security to be provided through fencing of schools to ensure peaceful school academic environment.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Economics is the corner stone or the breath of social science and technological development. It is regarded as the bedrock of all social sciences subjects that could cut across the school curriculum and it is necessary in the study of social science whether theoretical or empirical. The desire of many countries particularly Nigeria to develop her human and material resource s in this direction has made it possible for the study and teaching of economics very imperative.

Economic as well as most other sciences its frontiers are constantly changing commonly used as the study of the use of limited resources for the achievement of alternative ends. Theories employ abstract deductive reasoning whereby conclusions are drawn and purely empirical studies are inductive in nature. It is of records that the proper teaching and learning of economics is one of the most complex problems facing the Nigeria (Nig) educational system today.
According to Nwadinigu and Azuka-Obieke, 2012, poor academic achievement is an achievement that is adjudged by the examiners as falling below an expected standard. It is when a student performance is below his actual ability. It could be as a result of several factors such as poor teaching, psychological factors, unpreparedness on the part of the students, poor learning environment, location of schools and the evaluation process.

Several factors such as attitude of students and teachers, study habit, teachers’ qualification, teaching methods, school environment, government policy, school location, family types have been identified in several studies as factors influencing students’ academic achievement (Edwards, 2000; Aremu & Sokan, 2003; Asikhia, 2010; Akomolufe & Olorumfemi-Olabisi, 2011).

Arigbabu and Mji (2004) are of the opinion that in Nigeria, and perhaps the whole of Africa, gender bias is still very prevalent. Abdullahi, Kalejaiye-Matti, Garba and Balogun (2007) agreed that socialization patterns in Nigeria and most African setting, place enormous restrictions on the female gender and from her a higher input of daily domestic labour than from the male. This perception automatically scheme female out from any consideration for serious professional discipline even in cases where the female appears to be more brilliant than their male counterpart is. Raimi and Adeoye (2006) observed in their research on gender differences among college students in integrated science, that there is a significant difference attitude towards integrated science. Oludipe (2012) and Kola and Taiwo (2013) observed in there various studies that there is no significant difference between male and female performance.

Students attending rural schools face challenges of higher poverty than those attending urban schools. In Nigeria, the lingual Franca is English language, which in most cases is not widely spoken in rural schools. What obtains in most cases is the native language of that setting. This can greatly affect students’ performance in mathematics since it is with English language mathematics is been taught and assessed in schools. Urban schools have main advantages like availability of resources, library, opportunities, good environment, teachers etc. However, one of the greatest advantages of rural schools is the tendency for smaller classes, which promise increased student evaluation, and provide greater flexibility in teaching strategy.

However, Owoeye (2002) found that urban students performed better than rural students in all forms of achievement test used. Kissau (2006) reported that students in urban and rural location performed in a similar manner. Obioma (1989) indicated that most mathematically deficient learners were found in major urban centres rather than other locations. Igboegwu and Okonkwo (2012) study indicates a significant difference in students achievement with respect to location of school and education zones. The study showed that urban schools achieved significantly better than students in the rural schools did. Between males and females in their attitude towards integrated science. Oludipe (2012) and Kola and Taiwo (2013) observed in there various studies that there is no significant difference between male and female performance. Kissau (2006) reported that students in urban and rural location performed in a similar manner. Obioma (1989) indicated that most mathematically deficient learners were found in major urban centres rather than other locations. Igboegwu and Okonkwo (2012) study indicates a significant difference in students achievement with respect to location of school and education zones. The study showed that urban schools achieved significantly better than students in the rural schools did.


1.2 Statement of the problem

Many Nigerian students are performing below expectation in their academics. The tread in the academic achievement of secondary school students in Nigeria in the last two decades has become a major source of concern to all stakeholders in the educational sector. According to Nwadinigu and Azaka-Obieke, (2012), there is a mass decline in the achievement of students in both National Examination Council (NECO) and the West Africa Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE). Adesemowo (2005) further stressed the issue by explaining that the annual release of senior secondary certificate examination (SSCE) conducted by West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) depicts the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ achievement in different school subjects especially mathematics and English language among secondary school students. The stakeholders in education agree that the huge investment on education is not yielding the desired dividend and this is factored by sex differences of candidates and location of school are contributory factor.This is because student schooling in urban area seems to perform better in Economic that those in rural areas. Urban schools have high chances of being taught by qualified teachers and more opportunities to equipped classroom facilities which is capable of improving academic achievement. Therefore it is upon this premise that this study seeks to find out if school location and sex differentials are correlates of academic achievement in Economics.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study is to examine effect of school location and sex differentials on student’s achievement in economics in secondary schools using Delta State as case study. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Ascertain the influence of gender on students’ academic achievement in Economics.
  2. Examine the effects of school location on students’ academic achievement in Economics.
  3. Investigate the correlation between school location and gender on the student’s achievement in Economics.

1.4 Research Question

  1. Is Gender differences a significant factor in students’ academic achievement in Economics?
  2. Is School location is not a significant factor in students’ academic achievement in Economics?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between school location and gender on the student’s academic achievement in Economics.

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho1. Gender difference is not a significant factor in students’ academic achievement in Economics.

Ho2. There is no relationship between School location and students’ academic achievement in Economics.

Ho3. There is no correlation between school location and gender on the student’s academic achievement in Economics.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this will be significant to educational stakeholders, curriculum planners, teachers and academia. The study will provide insights to the curriculum developers, teachers, parents, students, counsellors, and policy makers regarding the influence that gender and school location on academic achievement. The study will also contribute to the general body of knowledge and serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related filed.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on school location and sex differentials are correlates of academic achievement in Economics. The study is however delimited to Agbo Local government Area in Delta State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

School:

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers

School Environment:

A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding.

Academic Achievement:

Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by test scores.

School Location:

School location refers to the community in which the school is located, such as a village, hamlet or rural area.

Secondary School:

Secondary school (also”high school”)is a term used to describe an educational institution where the final stage of schooling, known as secondary education and usually compulsory up to a specified age, takes place. It follows elementary or primary education, and may be followed by university (tertiary) education


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

The scope of this study borders on school location and sex differentials are correlates of academic achievement in Economics using Agbo Local government Area in Delta State as case study.

The study adopted a survey research design and with the aid of convenient sampling method, the researcher enrolled 136 participants for the study who are student and teachers in four(4) selected public and private secondary school in Agbo local government in Delta State. Well structured questionnaire was issued to the respondent of which a total of 120 responses were received and validated for the study. Data was was presented in tables and frequencies. Result were analyzed using simple percentage which provided answers to the research questions. Hypothesis Test was conducted using T-test and Pearson correlation Statistical tool(SPSS).


5.2 Conclusion

Economics is a tool that can be used to bring about the desired transformation needed in Nigeria economy sector. If there are, factors that negatively affect the performance of some students in Economics, there is need to address them as early as possible. The result of the study revealed a significant difference in the academic performance of students in rural and urban secondary schools in Nigeria. These differences can be attributed to the favourable location advantage of the urban schools, infrastructural distribution, and differences in distribution of teaching staff amongst others, according to the research findings. From the research, rural schools does not favour academic performance and most likely, that is the reason there is urban-rural migration for success in academic performance during the WAEC seasons in the country.


5.3 Recommendation

With reference to the above findings, the study recommended among others that

  1. While establishing schools in the near future, it should not be close to border areas and in case of already established ones should be converted to full boarding schools where the student’s activities can be closely monitored and restricted.
  2. Boys and Girls are to be given equal educational opportunities, parents to check and monitor the types of friends their wards associate with and that government must ensure proper funding and equipping of schools with relevant and current instructional materials with motivation and prompt payment of teachers salary.
  3. Teachers should put into consideration the disparity that exist between male/female, urban/rural and low SES/high SES when teaching mathematics.
  4. Female students should be encouraged to show more interest in mathematics.
  5. Government should provide incentives that will attract teachers to the rural area.
  6. Equal supervisory activities by ministry official should get to all schools irrespective of location.
  7. Adequate classroom buildings to be provided in the public schools to help promote effective teaching for students improved academic achievement. Government and communities to ensure that students have access to the schools nearest to their areas of residence.
  8. Efforts should be made by stakeholders to provide schools with functional libraries, well equipped with current reading reference materials irrespective of the location of the school. Qualified library assistants to be posted to schools to aid the students on the proper use of the library service enough security to be provided through fencing of schools to ensure peaceful school academic environment.

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