Knowledge Of Sex Education Among Adolescents In Secondary Schools
The study investigated the level of knowledge of sex education among in-school adolescents in Benin City looking at the influences which gender, class level and school-type whether single sex school or mixed sex school has on the level of knowledge of sex education. Cross sectional survey research design was adopted to study 120 students who were selected to represent the population which comprise all in- school adolescents in Benin City. A self-developed questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 student of which 58 were males while 62 were females. The data was analyzed using percentages and frequency count and also modified Okafor’s (1997) criteria for describing level of knowledge of sex education was adopted. The conclusion of the study is that the level of knowledge of sex education among in-school adolescents in Benin City was high, with gender and school type whether single or mixed school having no influence on the level of knowledge of sex education, and with class level influencing significantly the level of knowledge of sex education.
1.1 Background to the Study
The advancement witness in the world today in education, technology, communication, agriculture, population growth as well as in urbanization cannot be all round blessings as it has its own disadvantages. This confirms the popular saying that ‘‘whatever has an advantage has a disadvantage.’’ Such trend of advancement in areas like technology, transportation, trade, labour and capital mobility, global media and financial system among others according to Tejvan (2013) are factors which have caused globalization.
One dimension of globalization argued by Steger (2009) is cultural globalization which according to Wikipedia refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relations. In other words, cultural globalization brings about cultural integration and interdependence which implies that no nation can be indifferent to any other. For us here in Nigeria this is crystal clear as it can be seen in our dressing, greeting, language as well as its negative effects such as decline in religious scruples and the deterioration of moral standards which has led to a state that can best be describe as cultural disintegration.
Few decades ago, virginity of a girl until she is married was rewarded and various taboos were created around premarital sex. This trend has gradually changed as the incidence of adolescents and youth engaging in sexual intercourse is high and may constitute a problem (Isiugo-Abanihe, 1993). This behaviour as opined by Isiugo-Abanihe (1993) is prevalent among students of secondary schools and higher institutions of learning in Nigeria and may be due to various customs and observances as well as other factors such as family background, peer pressure, media influences, globalization, economic situations and education background of parents (Akinleye&Oniogade,1998). This is not to say that our culture before the globalization movement was without shortcomings.
Traditionally, adolescents in most of our culture were not given any information on sexual matters, with discussion of such issues being considered as taboo. Such instructions as were given were traditionally left to a child’s parents and often this was put aside until just before a child’s marriage. Most of the information adolescents have on sexual matters were obtained informally due to the above scenario from friends and media much of which are highly deficient especially during the period following puberty when curiosity of sexual matter is most acute. This curiosity becomes increasingly evident by the increasing incidence of teenage pregnancy, abortion and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and youth. School desertion is one consequence of teenage pregnancy which according to Montenegro (2000) jeopardizes the education and training of the teenager which in turn perpetuates the cycle of poverty. This is perhaps why Lingram (2003) noted that adolescents are considered to be in a state of crisis.
Most adolescents are at high risk in one or more self-destructive behaviour such as unsafe sex, experimentation in sex, failure or dropping out of school due to teenage pregnancy and childbearing. Some of the behaviour according to Igbokwe (2012) could be sometimes attributed to lack of basic education concerning sex and sexuality thereby making the knowledge of sex education imperative.
Although formal sex education have been introduced by many countries to be taught as a full course as part of the curriculum in secondary schools as efforts to ameliorate problems associated with sexuality, it is partially taught as only one unit within a more comprehensive school subject such as Biology, Home economics, Health science or Physical and health education in Nigeria. This to a large extent has an impact on the sexuality knowledge of in-school adolescents.
Sex education is very important to adolescents and our secondary schools is the place where young boys and girls are trained both in character and in learning (Herman, 1999) but suffice is to say that sex, abortion, teenage pregnancy and other juvenile delinquency have made the above objective unrealistic considering the likelihood that adolescents in secondary schools in Benin City may not be an exception.
It is against this background that it becomes important to ascertain the knowledge of in-school adolescents in Benin City.
1.2 Statement of Problems
The problem associated with lack of inadequate knowledge on sex and sexuality matters are enormous which are evidently obvious in the incidence of teenage pregnancy, abortion among adolescents, sexually transmitted infection (STIs), school desertion caused by unwanted pregnancy, poverty perpetuation due to jeopardy of education which results from pregnancy, child abuse and neglect, child battering, child mortality and maternal deprivation frequent among offspring of teenage parents among others.
Some if not all of the above problems to some extent is caused by the lack of skill to negotiate safe sexual practices since the involvement of adolescents both boys and girls in sexual relationship is no longer new and this perhaps why Owie (2005) stated that the issue of boy and girl relationship such as dating, courting and choice of future partners should be critically addressed.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
The purpose of this study is to ascertain the level of sex education knowledge of the in-school adolescents In Benin City with the following objectives:
- To ascertain the level of sex education knowledge among in-school adolescents in Benin City.
- To ascertain if gender have an influence in the level of sex education knowledge.
- To ascertain if class-in-school have an influence in the level of sex education knowledge.
- To ascertain in school-type whether single sex school or mixed sex school have an influence in the level of sex education knowledge.
1.4 Hypothesis Two
- Hi: There is a significant difference between Male and Female students opinion about the role of sex education in adolescent sexual issues.
- Ho: There is no significant difference between Male and Female students opinion about the role of sex education in adolescent sexual issues.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study will benefit the following; Health education intervention planners since the level of sex education knowledge when ascertained will serve as a starting point for a comprehensive sex education; Curriculum planners in the inclusion of sex education in the curriculum and the level of embassy that will be given to it.
1.6 Scope and Limitations
Due to the lack of time and resources, the study is delimited to selected secondary schools, located in Oredo local government area in Benin City, Edo state, Nigeria. Lack of time and finance is a major limitation as this prevents the researcher from reaching the defined population. Another limitation is lack of current literature on this topic.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
1. Sex Education:
Sex education also referred to as sexuality education or sex and relationship education is defined as a process of exposing an individual to positive and negative sexual habits and characteristics in order for the individual to live safe and healthy sexual life with basic knowledge as a major intervening factor (Igbokwe, 2012). It is simply the modification of people’s sexual behaviours and attitude through the dissemination of healthful sex instruction and information.
Knowledge means being well informed and skilled with regard to a particular concept.
An adolescent is a person in the stage of adolescence.
Adolescence is a stage in life between childhood and adulthood usually between age 12 to 20 years depending on environmental and cultural factors.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to reiterate that the objective of this study was the the sex education knowledge of the in-school adolescents.
In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in evaluating examine the sex education knowledge of the in-school adolescents.
This study was undertaken to examine the sex education knowledge of the in-school adolescents. The study opened with chapter one where the statement of the problem was clearly defined. The study objectives and research hypotheses were defined and formulated respectively. The study reviewed related and relevant literatures. The chapter two gave the conceptual framework, empirical and theoretical studies. The third chapter described the methodology employed by the researcher in collecting both the primary and the secondary data. The research method employed here is the descriptive survey method. The study analyzed and presented the data collected in tables and the hypotheses were tested using the chi square to test hypothesis. While the fifth chapter gives the study summary and conclusion.
5.3 Conclusion and Recommendations
This study reveals that indeed sex education will help curb a lot of complication problems faced by adolescents Ibrahim (2003) opined that sex has created and is still creating problems for many of our youths, their parents and the entire society such problems include unplanned marriage, abortion and its resultant consequences such as death of our promising adolescent girls, sexually transmitted infection (STI) and high rate of divorces cases of juvenile delinquency This is an indication that something is missing in our educational system and that thing is sex education. According to Mecklanbury (1993) cited by Njoku (2000) stated that the implication of this observation is that the prevalence of incidence of unwanted pregnancies, abortion, unplanned marriages and their consequences could be curbed through the introduction of sex educations in schools.
The study also found that the adolescent who had taken the course excelled over those who did not in their proficiency towards responses to a sex knowledge test. The need for sex education for youths is further strengthened by the argument put forward by the Centre for Diseases Control (CDC) of United States of American (1999) that withholding family planning services from adolescents from urban and rural communities does not lead to a decline in the number of adolescents having premarital intercourse rather, the result are many more unwanted pregnancies. We found that there is a significant difference between the perception of male and female students about the teaching of sex education in secondary schools in Benin city and there is no significant difference between Male and Female students opinion about the role of sex education in adolescent sexual issues.
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