Sex Education, A Tool For Combating Teen Pregnancies And Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Sex Education, A Tool For Combating Teen Pregnancies And Sexually Transmitted Infections


Abstract


Teenage pregnancy teenage pregnancy has been identified as one of the reasons for girls dropping out from school in Ibadan. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the school based mechanisms in preventing teenage pregnancies in secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the effectiveness of mentorship programs, comprehensive sex education and peer counseling in preventing teenage pregnancy in schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study employed descriptive research design. The researcher employed purposive sampling in selecting the counseling teachers, class teachers and some few students. The target population was drawn from guidance and counseling teachers, class teachers and some few students are involved in preventing pregnancy based in Ibadan. The study also selected at least one guidance and counseling teacher from each school therefore the total target population was 26 guidance and counseling teachers. Since the number of students and guidance and counseling teachers were small the study adopted census technique to incorporate all 104 prefects and 26 guidance and counseling teachers. Primary sources such as semi structured questionnaires were used in data collection. A pilot study was conducted on a small sample size. Validity was determined through the help of expert judgment (the supervisor) who assessed the instrument and find out if it answers the phenomenon under study. Quantitative and qualitative data was used in data analysis. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24.0 Based on the findings, the study concluded that sport activities destruct teenagers from engaging in irresponsible sexual behaviour which help in preventing teenage pregnancy. Furthermore, the researcher concluded that community service helps in preventing sexually transmitted diseases and teenage pregnancy by keeping teenagers busy. In addition, the researcher concluded that promoting the use of condoms among teenagers is an effective mechanism in preventing teenage pregnancy and making contraceptives available and accessible is an effective mechanism in preventing teenage pregnancy.


Table of Contents


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background to the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.1.1 Effects of Teen Pregnancy and Motherhood
  • 2.1.2 Sex 1Education in Schools
  • 2.1.3 Abstinence-only Programing
  • 2.1.4 Comprehensive Programming
  • 2.1.5 Program Approaches and Curriculum
  • 2.1.6 Youth Development and Life Alternative Programs
  • 2.1.7 Sex Education: With and Without Contraception
  • 2.1.8 Service-learning Programs
  • 2.1.9 Comprehensive Sex Education and Reduction in Teenage Pregnancy
  • 2.2 Theoretical Review
  • 2.2.1 Rational Emotive Behavior Theory by Albert
  • 2.2.2 Theory of Joharis Window of Personality Discovery
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Source and Method of Data Collection
  • 3.5 Instrument for data collection
  • 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.7 Validation of Instrument
  • 3.8 Reliability of the instrument

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.1.1 Response Rate
  • 4.1.2 Bio-Data
  • 4.1.4 Teachers’ teaching experience Information regarding the class teachers’ teaching experience was sought the researcher
  • 4.1.5 Academic Qualification of Teachers Data regarding the teachers’ academic qualification was sought
  • 4.1.6 Focus of Comprehensive Sex Education Program The researcher sought to establish the comprehensive sex education programme’ focus.
  • 4.1.7 Comprehensive sex education’s effectiveness in preventing of teenage pregnancy
  • 4.2 Data Analysis
  • 4.3 Discussion of Results

Chapter Five:

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Young people all across the world participate in sexual conduct putting them at risk of HIV, pregnancy, and other sexually transmitted illnesses (STIs). Teenage pregnancy, according to UNFPA (2013), is both health concern and a development one that is rooted in forced marriage, violence, gender inequality, poverty, and inadequate education, to name a few. There are over 600 million girls in the globe today, with more than 500 million of them living in poor nations. Furthermore, UNICEF (2012) estimates that over 16 million teenage girls who are 15 to 19 years old deliver every year around the world. Developing nations account for 95 percent of the world’s adolescent girl births (UNFPA, 2013b). Nine out of ten of these births take place in a marriage or relationship. Furthermore, over 19% of teenagers in poor nations get pregnant before they turn 18 years old (UNESCO, 2011).

In a 2013 poll of US high school students (usually 13–19 years old), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) discovered that half (47%) had had sexual intercourse, with 15% being involved with four or more lifetime partners. Around a third of learners were sexually active (had sexual intercourse in the previous three months). Out of this, 14% did not utilize any method of preventing pregnancy during their most recent intercourse (UNICEF, 2012). Despite the high rate of sexual activity, most schools have implemented programs aimed at lowering the number of adolescent pregnancy cases (Bangser, 2010). The trend is shifting, and the number of student-adolescents or youths engaging in sexual interactions is steadily decreasing (URT, 2010).

Most schools in poor and middle income nations do not have systems in place to prevent teenage pregnancy. The world’s highest rate of pregnancy is by adolescent females in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (Population Reference Bureau, 2013). According to UNFPA (2013), every day in underdeveloped countries, 20 000 girls below 18 years deliver, while 70 000 adolescent girls succumb to pregnancy problems and childbearing. The main reason for this is a lack of knowledge on this group; information on this group is scarce, fragmentary, or not available in some nations, (UNFPA, 2013).

To support youth reproductive health care, policy steps to support youth reproductive health care have been taken by Nigeria. This include: the formulation and implementation of a national youth reproductive health policy; in Nigeria, reproductive health is on the concurrent legislative list in Nigeria; and thus, the three tiers of government, including states and local governments (WHO, 2014), should come up with independent policies. According to the Tanzania Demographic Health Survey TDHS (URT, 2010), at 19 years, 23 percent of Tanzanian women aged 15 to 19 have started carrying children, and 44 percent are either pregnant for the first time or are mothers. According to a research by the Center for Reproductive Rights (2013), Tanzania, like other nations, is not immune to the problem of teen pregnancy. More than 55 000 adolescent girls dropped out of school (secondary and primary) owing to pregnancy between 2003 and 2011. Strenuous attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy have been made by Tanzanian government and development partners by launching programs and policies to address the issue. Despite this, the programs have met a number of obstacles, including a lack of funding, community hostility, and even cultural concerns.

Teen pregnancies, according to Lang (2012), cause serious economic, psychosocial and health risks to the girl child, this includes limiting their choices, opportunities and capabilities, confining them in poverty (most are from poor backgrounds) and frustrating their career growth, schooling and reproductive health, including childbearing. Furthermore, according to Kruger and Berthelon (2012), a common psychosocial impact is the trauma experienced as a result of prejudice in learning institutions and failing to be “readmitted” again since instructors and school administration typically perceive them as “not good examples to the rest of the girls.”

In Ibadan, one of the most prevalent consequences of teen girls’ pregnancy is the educational opportunities loss: when instructors and school authorities hear about the pregnancy, the girls forcefully leave school or are frequently expelled. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), despite the fact that the Nigerian government created rules over a decade ago to safeguard the right of a pregnant girl to go on with her studies, each year, more than 500 girls abandon their owing to pregnancy. The top reason for dropping out of school shame of pregnancy and prejudice by instructors and peers as cited by the pregnant girls, according to a UNESCO report (2011).


1.2 Statement of the Research Problem

In Ibadan, the rate of unwanted pregnancies among these youths continue to rise despite implementation of programs regarding youth sexuality and contraception, life skills that enable them to resist peer pressure and asserting themselves and accessibility of appropriate information and services on contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases among others. Many youths/adolescents are still vulnerable and still suffer from the consequences of unprotected sex. Several studies regarding the school based ways’ effectiveness in preventing teenage pregnancies have been done, for instance, in the USA Marseille and Khan (2018) studied the school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs’ effectiveness. Mwenje (2015) conducted a study on re-entry policy implementation in public high schools for adolescent mothers, however, none of the study focused in Kilifi County, therefore the need to conduct a study on the effectiveness of school based programs that can curb teenage pregnancies in schools in Ibadan.


1.3 Research Objective

The main objective of this study is to examine sex education: a tool for combating teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. Specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To examine the effectiveness of mentorship programs in preventing teenage pregnancy in schools in Ibadan.
  2. To establish the effectiveness of comprehensive sex education in preventing of teenage pregnancy in schools in Ibadan.
  3. To find out the effectiveness of peer counseling in preventing teenage pregnancy in schools in Ibadan.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What were women’s experiences with sexual education information during the middle/high school years across any or all contexts (school, community, home)?
  2. How do women report these experiences influenced their sexual and reproductive decision-making related to pregnancy prevention efforts?
  3. What recommendations do women have for future pregnancy prevention efforts across these contexts?

1.5 Significance of the Study

Significance of the Study The significance of this study is to make an incremental contribution to the overall knowledge base about best practices in the school, community, and home environment regarding young women and their sexual and reproductive health. Specifically, this study focuses on how schools, communities, and homes impact sexual health education and the support young people receive around this topic that influences their prevention efforts around teen pregnancy. The 9women can share their sexual health and reproductive experiences and the necessary steps schools, communities, and homes can take to improve prevention efforts. The significance of this research is found in shared, lived experiences or stories of the study participants because personal stories can lead to increased understanding and, at the very least, contextualize what is known about sex education and pregnancy prevention. This research will raise awareness about what is needed to encourage and teach young people to adopt healthy sexual health practices, particularly among young women, from their own perspectives.

Those who work with young people may find this material useful in becoming more aware of the educational success of such topics or helping them comprehend, appreciate, and accept the demands of this demographic. Other young people, community leaders, parents, families, and neighborhoods may find this valuable information in understanding the importance of sexual and reproductive health and being informed. The data could potentially help develop policies around comprehensive sex education and pregnancy prevention. Overall, the study’s findings may influence young people’s decision-making and behavior concerning sexual and reproductive health. The results could be helpful in raising public knowledge about adolescent pregnancy’s economic and societal implications. When the general population is aware of the difficulties connected with teenage pregnancy, they are more inclined to help the targeted group of young people in their efforts to prevent it.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on sex education as a tool for combating teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

Various difficulties were encountered, some respondent’s concealed information which they considered personal. The researcher overcame this by assuring the participants that the data collected was to be used solely for research purpose and their identity was not disclosed. Access, cost and time to cover all the targeted secondary schools was also a challenge as Ibadan covers a big area in Oyo State, Nigeria. The researcher overcome the challenge of resources by getting funds from the family members and well-wishers. In terms of time constraint the researchers addressed the challenge by allocating a period of two weeks to the respondents to fill the questionnaires.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Teenager:

A person aged 13-19. I use teenager and adolescent interchangeably throughout the study. Teenage pregnancy: Women under the age of 20 who give birth to a child is defined as a viable teenage pregnancy. Young girls aged 12 who give birth to a child although not strictly a teen are included (American Pregnancy Association, 2021).

Unintended Pregnancy:

Is a pregnancy that was either unplanned and/or unwanted. (CDC, 2021). Birth rate: the total of live births per thousand of population per year. Middle school/Jr. High: includes grades anywhere from sixth through ninth. High school: includes grades anywhere from ninth through twelfth.

Sexual Health:

A sexually-related state of emotional, physical, social, and mental wellbeing. Sexual health involves a healthy and considerate approach with regard to sexuality and sexual partnerships, along with the capability to participate in gratifying and secure sexual interactions that are without charge of coercion, violent behavior, and discrimination (CDC, 2019). I use sexual health and reproductive health interchangeably throughout the study.

Comprehensive Sex Education:

Is an instructional based sex education teaching technique that aims to provide learners with the attitudes, knowledge, values, and skills and abilities required for making safe and healthy sexual decisions (Goldfarb & Lieberman, 2021).

Pregnancy Prevention:

Contraception as a method of preventing pregnancy and determining the number and spacing of children (HHS Office of Population Affairs, 2022)

Abstinence-Only Sex Education:

Emphasizes the significance of avoiding having sex outside of marriage (Santelli et al., 2006). Support systems: a group of people that provide emotional or practical support to an individual (Cauce, Felner, & Primavera, 1982).

Consent:

An agreement allowing something to happen or agreeing to do something. 8 Phenomenological research: The study of the core of an experience as lived by the individual who has personally witnessed the phenomenon (Patton, 2002).


1.9 Organization of the Study

There are five chapters in this study, the first of which discusses the background, statement of the research problem, aims, research question, and research hypotheses as well as the study’s significance, scope, and limitations. Chapter 2 contains conceptual, theoretical, and empirical reviews. The study methodology is covered in Chapter 3. This chapter covers the research design, the study’s population, the sample size and methodology, the data collection source and method, the study’s instruments, the data analysis method, and the validity and reliability of the study.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

On the extent to which mentorship programs help to reduce teenage pregnancies, 66% of the participants indicated to a great extent, 24% indicated that mentorship programs help to reduce teenage pregnancies to a low extent while 8% stated to a no extent. This indicated that mentorship programs help to reduce teenage pregnancies to a great extent. Further, the researcher revealed that 45% of the respondents strongly agreed that sport activities destruct teenagers from engaging in irresponsible sexual behaviour which help in preventing teenage pregnancy 5% disagreed with the same sentiment, 3% were neutral while 47% were in agreement. Further 40% of the participants strongly agreed that sports offer an important opportunity for building life skills such as self-control which help in preventing 79 teenage pregnancy, 51% agreed with the same, 4% disagreed whereas 5% were neutral.

Further, 40% of the participants strongly agreed that sport activities help in building critical thinking among teenagers which help in preventing teenage pregnancy 57% agreed with the same statement, 1% disagreed and 2% were neutral. From the findings, 33% of the respondents stated that the school provide comprehensive sex education programme to a great extent, 52% stated that the school provide comprehensive sex education to a low extent, 15% indicated that the school provide comprehensive sex education to a no extent. This implies that comprehensive sex education programme is provided by the school. From the findings, 48% of prefects and teachers respondents strongly agreed that promoting a culture of abstinence among teenagers helps in preventing teenage pregnancy, 48% of the participants were in agreement with the same statement, 2% disagreed whereas 2% were neutral. Further noted that 54% of prefects and teachers respondents strongly agreed that encouraging single sexual partners has greatly reduced in preventing teenage pregnancy, 28% were in agreement with the same sentiment, 9% disagreed and 9% were neutral. Furthermore, based on Table 4.6, 51% of prefects and teachers respondents agreed strongly that promoting the use of condom among teenagers is an effective mechanism in preventing teenage pregnancy, 40% agreed with the same sentiment, 4% disagreed whereas 5% were neutral. Majority agreed that promoting the use of condom among teenagers is an effective mechanism in preventing teenage pregnancy.

From the findings, peer counselling mechanisms include programs such as social comparison, social support and advice based on experiential knowledge. From the findings, 50% of the respondents strongly agreed that through peer counseling teenagers are able to learn from each other through sharing experiences which help in preventing teenage pregnancy, 46% agreed, 2% disagreed with the statement, while another 2% remained neutral over it. This implies that through peer counseling teenagers are able to learn from each other through sharing experiences which help in preventing teenage pregnancy. The findings similarly revealed that 58% of the participants strongly agreed that through peer counseling teenagers are able to mentor each other through positive behavior which helps in preventing teenage pregnancy, 4% of the participants disagreed with the statement, 14% were neutral and 24% agreed. This implies through peer counseling teenagers are able to mentor each other through positive behavior which help in preventing teenage pregnancy


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings, the study concluded that sport activities destruct teenagers from engaging in irresponsible sexual behaviour which help in preventing teenage pregnancy. The study also concluded that sports offer an important opportunity for building life skills such as self-control which help in preventing teenage pregnancy. Sport activities help in building critical thinking among teenagers which help in preventing teenage pregnancy. Furthermore, the researcher concluded that community service help in preventing teenage pregnancy by keeping teenagers busy. Community service activities create a sense of responsibility among the teenagers which help in preventing teenage pregnancy.


5.3 Recommendation

In order to have guidance and counselling existence known by more students, the orientation handbook for new students could be expanded to include detailed information about the availability of counselling resources. School communication channels should be left open, regular school notices, posts and newsletters could also narrow the information gap on either side and provide a channel for solving teenage pregnancies before they become a crisis erupts. The researcher also recommends that the ministry of education should carry out rigorous community sensitization on the importance of educating pregnant and parenting teenage mothers’. The community should provide financial and moral support for the affected girls especially those in lower secondary since there is low support for their school resumption.


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