Knowledge And Practice Of Unsafe Abortion Among Adolescent Girls (13 – 19 Years) In West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State

Sex Education Project and Seminar Material

Knowledge And Practice Of Unsafe Abortion Among Adolescent Girls (13 – 19 Years) In West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the knowledge and practice of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. The study was carried out to assess the prevalence of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State, assess the level of adolescents knowledge of unsafe abortion in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State, and assess the unsafe abortion practices of adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of adolescent girls from the age of 13 – 19 years in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses was tested Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State is high. Furthermore, the study revealed that the effect of unsafe abortion on adolescents includes: death, disability, and morbidity. Therefore, it is recommended that health education should provide information on the legal status of abortion in Nigeria, the prevention of unwanted pregnancies, avoidance of unsafe abortions, and how to recognise and seek appropriate treatment for abortion complications. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Abortion threatens the health and social life of female adolescents, its contribution to maternal deaths is a major case in point. Despite being a persistent and preventable pandemic, it still remains one of the most neglected sexual and reproductive health problems today, (Grimes, 2006). Sexually active adolescents have limited knowledge on and access to contraceptives (Silberschmit, 2001), this factor contributes to the high number of unwanted pregnancies among this age group. Early, unwanted pregnancies are associated with increased levels of induced abortion which in most cases are performed under unsafe conditions, (WHO, 2012).

Unsafe abortion is defined as a procedure for terminating an unintended pregnancy either by individuals without the necessary skills or in an environment that does not conform to minimum medical standards, or both, (WHO, 2006). An unsafe abortion may be self-induced and in most instances various dangerous and or unhygienic methods are used, (Alford, 2011). The term adolescence is usually used to describe the period of psychosexual development between childhood and adulthood and includes ages 10 to 19 years, (Action Health Incorporated, 1996). There are key developmental changes that all adolescents undergo and these include the development of sex organs and increased sexual desires (office of population Affairs, 2011). Some scholars argue that there is no exact age boundary.

Worldwide, nearly one in ten pregnancies ends in unsafe abortion. It is estimated by the World Health Organisation that as many as 4.4 million abortions are sought by adolescent girls each year (WHO, 1998). Compared to adults, adolescents’ delay the process, resort to unskilled persons to perform it and use dangerous methods which may lead to complications or may be fatal, (Olukoya, 2001). Recent statistics have indicated that out of the twenty two million (22 million) unsafe abortions that were conducted in 2011 the world over, three million two hundred (3 million 200) were among adolescents, with Africa recording the highest number of unsafe abortion among adolescents, (WHO, 2012). Almost all unsafe abortions occur in developing countries and this is where 99% of abortion related deaths occur.

About one-quarter of the unsafe abortions in Africa are among adolescents aged fifteen to nineteen years of age (15 to 19), a higher proportion than in any other region in the world, (Population Reference Bureau, 2011).

When a safe abortion is not easily accessible adolescents turn to unskilled practitioners (including traditional or religious healers, and herbalists) who use a variety of methods. Unsafe methods include: Swallowing large doses of drugs, such as antimalarial or oral contraceptives (birth control pills), inserting a sharp object into the uterus, drinking or flushing the vagina with caustic liquids such as bleach, physical abuse such as jumping or falling from high places, vigorous dancing, or sustained and vigorous sexual intercourse over long periods, prolonged and hard massage to manipulate the uterus, or repeated blows to the stomach, ( Population reference bureau, 2011).

In a nut shell abortions performed under unsafe conditions apart from claiming the lives of adolescents, often leaves most of them with chronic irreversible health problems (Population reference Bureau, 2011).With the afore mentioned it is beyond all reasonable doubt that unsafe abortion is a key obstacle in meeting the millennium development goal of reducing maternal mortality.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Many adolescents are reckless with sexual practice resulting in unwanted pregnancies which are terminated in unsafe ways (Ariba 2000). Those sexually active adolescents do not receive special family planning information and have limited knowledge on dangers of unsafe abortion. Asaba, Delta State is no exception when it comes to adolescent pregnancies and unsafe abortion as this is evident from the number of girls aged less than 20 years admitted to the maternity ward for delivery and also the high number of girls attended to for abortion complications. In 2011 there were 465 deliveries among young women aged less than 20, this number increased to 667 deliveries among the same age group in 2012 (Ministry of health, 2012). This is a clear indication that adolescents are sexually active and are exposed to the dual risk of unwanted pregnancies and HIV/AIDS. A number of adolescents were also treated for complications due to an abortion. In view of the aforementioned, this study seek to assess the knowledge and practice of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The general aim of the study is to examine the knowledge and practice of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. The study will further and specifically;

  1. Assess the prevalence of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.
  2. Assess the level of adolescents knowledge of unsafe abortion in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.
  3. Assess the unsafe abortion practices of adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.

1.4. Research Questions

  1. What is the prevalence of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State?
  2. What is the level of adolescents knowledge of unsafe abortion in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State?
  3. What are the unsafe abortion practices of adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State?
  4. What is the effect of unsafe abortion on adolescents?
    1. Death,
    2. Disability,
    3. Morbidity.

1.5. Research Hypothesis

  • Ho: The adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba do not have adequate knowledge of unsafe abortion.
  • Ha: The adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba have adequate knowledge of unsafe abortion.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The necessity to give adolescent girls more attention and advocacy is obvious, therefore information from this study will be used by the policy makers and program managers in addressing the needs of young people today and come up with effective interventions to help in the reduction of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortion among this age group and hence lead to reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity in the long run. Findings of the study will also help focus attention on appropriate interventions responsive to the reproductive needs of adolescents by strengthening youth friendly health services and promoting a safe and supportive social environment in which they can thrive. This is very important because the actions of young people today will shape the size, health, and prosperity of the world’s future population.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is carried out to assess the knowledge and practice of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. The respondents for this study covers only adolescent girls from the age of 13 – 19 years in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

As every human endeavor is once faced with a constraint, the same was tenable during the period of this study. In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. In addition, there was the element of researcher bias. Here, the researcher possessed some biases that may have been reflected in the way the data was collected, the type of people interviewed or sampled, and how the data gathered was interpreted thereafter. The potential for all this to influence the findings and conclusions could not be downplayed. More so, the findings of this study are limited to the sample population in the study area, hence they may not be suitable for use in comparison to other tertiary institutions in other , states, and other countries in the world.


1.9 Definitions of Terms

Abortion:

Termination of the pregnancy of a woman before it reaches full term.

Sexual Activities:

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone to acts with another person in varying patterns of frequency, for a wide variety of reasons.


1.10 Organization of the Studies

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings of the knowledge and practice of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the knowledge and practice of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State. The study specifically was aimed to assess the prevalence of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State, assess the level of adolescents knowledge of unsafe abortion in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State, and assess the unsafe abortion practices of adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondents are adolescent girls from the age of 13 – 19 years in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion

  1. The prevalence of unsafe abortion among adolescent girls (13 – 19 years) in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State is high.
  2. The level of adolescents knowledge of unsafe abortion in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State is low.
  3. The unsafe abortion practices of adolescents in West End Mixed Secondary School Asaba, Delta State includes: swallowing large doses of drugs eg: oral contraceptives, inserting a sharp object into the uterus, drinking or flushing the vagina with caustic liquids such as bleach, and prolonged and hard massage to manipulate the uterus.
  4. The effect of unsafe abortion on adolescents includes: death, disability, and morbidity.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. One of the best ways to reduce unsafe abortion is by preventing unplanned pregnancies in the first place. This means widespread access to and information about a broad range of effective contraceptive methods. Where abortion is an option, adolescents should have access to safe and appropriate services with fully trained providers.
  2. The school health programme should be intensified to include the educating of adolescents on unsafe abortion and its related dangers. Since the majority of the respondents in our study got information from peers, peer education should be used to disseminate information on sex, pregnancy and abortion.
  3. Health education should provide information on the legal status of abortion in Nigeria, the prevention of unwanted pregnancies, avoidance of unsafe abortions, and how to recognise and seek appropriate treatment for abortion complications.
  4. Health professionals should display non-judgemental attitudes towards adolescents seeking reproductive health medical services. Confidential counselling and emergency contraception should be made available for female adolescents in need.
  5. Parents should take an active role in educating adolescents about sexual reproduction health matters on sex, pregnancy and abortion.

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