Factors Influencing Consumption Patterns Of Roasted Plantain And Beans (A Case Of Study Of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Students)
Adolescent overweight and obesity have been observed as one of serious public health challenges of the 21st century by the World Health Organization (WHO). Over the past few decades adolescent food consumption has undergone a great deal of transition from the starchy carbohydrates from roots and tubers to the highly refined cereals and sugary beverages. The highly refined cereals consumption contributes in no small measure to body adiposity. Physical inactivity further aggravates the calorie-imbalances that will later develop into overweight and obesity. This study determined the food consumption pattern and physical activity and overweight and obesity among the secondary school students in Kwara state, Nigeria. Cross-sectional analytical design was used in this study. A total of 515 adolescent students were randomly selected using multistage and stratified sampling techniques from 8 public secondary schools in two zonal inspectorate divisions. The instruments of data collection used were a modified food frequency questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A). Digital bathroom scale and stadiometer were used to measure the weight and height of the students respectively and observation checklist was used to assess the functionality of school facilities. Data was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS, Version 20) and WHO anthroplus package. Food consumption pattern of participants indicated that 77% consumed breakfast and 4.5% added more than 5 teaspoonful of sugar to their beverages daily. The participants mostly consumed refined carbohydrates was doughnut and biscuits (2.36±0.99) times per week, while mostly consumed fat and oil was vegetable oil in soup (2.54±0.96) times per week. Furthermore, the fatty protein mostly consumed was fish pies and fish rolls (2.71±0.87) times per week and mostly consumed fruit was pawpaw (2.56±0.89) times per week. Participants’ hours of sleep indicated that 50.3% had 7-8 hours of sleep daily. Physical activity level indicated that 48.7% were moderately active and 39.4% were highly active per week. Observation checklist results indicated that all the schools had functional sporting facilities (100%). Body mass index (BMI) for age of participants showed that 29.1% were underweight, 4.7% were overweight while less than 1% were obese. The Pearson correlation between BMI for age and food consumption pattern (FCP) was (r=0.012, p =0.785), BMI for age and physical activity level (r=-0.105, p= 0.017). ANOVA of BMI for age and food consumption pattern showed significance (p= 0.001). There was no significant difference between BMI for age and the metabolic equivalent scores (METs) of the participants (p=0.725). Despite the relatively low prevalence of overweight and obesity observed, of concern was high underweight and low BMI for age in this study. Result findings indicated low frequency of food consumption and moderate physical activity levels. The parents and guardians should improve on the frequency of consumption of nutritious food for the adolescent students in public secondary schools and their physical activity level should be sustained.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Adolescents as a vulnerable group require special attention and nutritional care because of the negative nutritional consequences that may occur among them as a result of inadequate consumption of healthy foods and physical inactivity. Overweight and obesity in childhood and in adolescents are emerging as one of the major public health of concern in the last few decades. Overweight and obesity conditions develop when there is an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended mostly due to inadequate consumption of healthy foods and physical inactivity that cut-across all age groupings. It is known to be associated with substantial loss of quality of life and social stigmatisation that may trigger depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, feelings of guilt and chronic diseases development in the crop of individuals that may constitute a higher percentage of the world labour force in few years to come (Onyiriuka, Umoru, & Ibeawuchi, 2013). Globally, the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent began to draw the world attention as early as 1991 in the United States of America (USA) when there was a decline in the proportion of students in grade 9 to 12 years participation in daily physical education from 42% in 1991 to 29% in 1999 (Boyle & Holben, 2006). In 1997, a World Health Organization (WHO) Consultative group formally recognized that the obesity epidemic occurs worldwide and that the prevalence is increasing faster in developing countries than in developed countries (Hafiz, Ibrahim, & Atiku, 2012; WHO, 2008). The healthy people 2010 initiative of the US department of health and human services (DHHS) progress review indicated that the proportion of children and adolescent age six to nine years who were overweight had increased from 11% in late 1980s to 16% in 2002. The initiative’s objectives on the consumption of fruits, vegetable and grain had not been met as at that time, therefore another goal was set for 2020 (Boyle & Holben, 2006).
Okoth (2013) reported overweight prevalence of 18.7% for female adolescent and 10.3% for male adolescent while the obesity prevalence for both male and female adolescents were 0% and 2.1% respectively among adolescents in Kenya. Adamu, Adjei and Kubuga (2012) put adolescents’ overweight and obesity prevalence in Ghana between 4% and 7%. In Nigeria the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescent varies according to the regions and between urban and rural, as well as between private and public school students. For instance in the Southern Nigeria, the prevalence of overweight was between 13.2% and 24.2% and the prevalence of obesity was between 1% and 2.5% (Onyiriuka et al, 2013). In the Northern Nigeria, recent study indicated a high prevalence of underweight (29.6%) in the adolescent (Hafiz, et al., 2012).
Physical activity is the bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor of global mortality. It accounted for 6% of death globally and has been estimated to be the main cause of the following disease conditions 27% diabetes, 21- 25% of breast and colon cancer and about 30% ischemic heart disease burden in the world (WHO, 2014). The recent studies conducted around the world indicated that the nutrition education interventions on school children have significantly improved their healthy eating habit and informed food choice practices.
However, these interventions are limited in some countries especially in the Northern Nigeria where there is a great diversity in the cultural practices that influence adolescent dietary behaviour. According to Olubanji Ojofeitimi, Ojofeitimi, Olugbenga-Bello, Adekanle, & Adeomi, 2011) the dietary practices of adolescent girls in private secondary schools studied indicated that majority (60.2%) were unhealthy. Similarly, overweight and obesity were significantly higher in adolescent girls who lived sedentary lifestyles in Nigeria as was reported in (Olubanji Ojofeitimi et al, 2011). Furthermore, the study indicated the difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents from private schools and public schools. The difference was concluded to be due to poor healthy dietary practices and sedentary lifestyles of the adolescents in private schools. Therefore this study on the food consumption patterns and physical activity and overweight and obesity will be very useful among adolescent students in public secondary schools in the North Central Nigeria where Kwara state is situated. This is important so that appropriate school based intervention can be put in place for the students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nutrition-related health problems such as overweight and obesity in adolescents are increasingly significant causes of disability and premature death both in developed and developing countries including Nigeria (Boyle & Holben, 2006). The epidemic of obesity alongside continuing problems of under- nutrition has plagued African 4 countries. According to Karl and Pengpid (2011) whose study was on the assessment of overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low-income African countries (Ghana and Uganda), adolescents consumed fruits or vegetables in less than one times in a day, while more than three quarters of them were physically inactive Studies on adolescents overweight and obesity among university students in Nigeria had shown progressive increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity especially in the private secondary schools (Eberechukwu, Eyam, &Nsan, 2013; Ene-Obong, Ibeanu, Onuoha & Ejekwu, 2012 ; Olubanji Ojofeitimi et al, 2011). Little information on overweight and obesity is available on the Nnamdi Azikiwe University students in Anambra state. Childhood and adolescents obesity are strong predictors of adult obesity which has now become the public health challenges of the 21st century according to World Health Organization (Fadupin & Olayiwola, 2011; Monyeki, vanLenthe, & Steyn, 1999; Popkin, Adair, & Ng, 2012). Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity (Raj & Kumar, 2010).
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study isfactors influencing consumption patterns of roasted plantain and beans (A Case Of Study Of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Students). Specific objectives of this study include to:
- Determine the demographic characteristics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students.
- Determine the food consumption patterns of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students.
- Determine the physical activity level of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students.
1.4 Research Questions
- What are the demographic characteristics of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students?
- What are the food consumption patterns of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students?
- What is the physical activity level of Nnamdi Azikiwe University students?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study findings would enable the ministry of education and schools’ administrators to develop policy framework on student’s food consumption patterns and physical activity practices at Nnamdi Azikiwe University.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in the school setting which may have influenced the food consumption pattern and physical activity level of the participants. Also data on food consumption was collected on recall basis from students and actual weighing of foods consumed was not made.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
This study was constrained by some factors. Firstly, the time frame allocated for the completion of this study was not enough for the researcher to extensively carry out research based on the theme of this research work. On the other hand, the research participants were not willing to participate in responding to the administered questionnaire of this study. Also, the required materials like journals and articles needed for the proper completion of this study were not readily available online and offline. All these constraint put together, ultimately determined the extent to which the researcher was able to go in this study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Any substance consumed by a human being for nutritional support. Food is usually of plant, animal, or fungal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals.
A medical condition, sometimes considered a disease, in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that it may negatively affect health. People are classified as obese when their body mass index (BMI)—a person’s weight divided by the square of the person’s height—is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight.
Body Mass Index (BMI):
A value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The BMI is defined as the body mass divided by the square of the body height, and is expressed in units of kg/m2, resulting from mass in kilograms and height in metres.
The sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores, each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos.
1.9 Organisations of the Study
This research work is categorized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms.
- Chapter two encompasses the conceptual review theoretical review and empirical reviews on which the study is based.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
The demographic characteristics of the students indicated that adolescent student girls were twice adolescent student boys. Majority of the adolescent parents and guardians only had primary school education and farming was their main occupation. Higher proportion of the adolescents lived with their parents and guardians while others lived alone.
The majority of the adolescents consumed breakfast before going to school and about a quarter of them skipped their breakfast. More than a half of them added two teaspoonful of sugar to their beverages daily while a third of them added up to four teaspoonful of sugar to their beverages during consumption daily. The adolescent’s consumption of refined carbohydrates was about three times in a week and starchy roots and tubers were consumed once in a week. The fatty protein foods and fat and oil rich foods were consumed two times in a week while fruits, sugary beverages and whole fruits were consumed three times in a week.
More than 50% of the adolescents slept for more than seven hours daily while only about 10% slept for about four hours. Adolescents students mainly walked to schools from their homes and a proportion of them went to school on motorcycle. The physical activity level of the adolescents based on the metabolic equivalents scores (METS) were between moderate and high intensity. The schools had functional facilities to promote sporting activities in form of physical activities. Schools made sport compulsory for all students to participate fully in the games and recreations. The weekly physical activity practice of the adolescents was three times in a week and majority of them did not believed that regular physical activity can prevent certain body ailments and as well as help to maintain an ideal weight.
A significant proportion of the adolescents was underweight and only 4% were overweight with less 1% of the adolescent classified as obese. The finding was an indication of low frequency of food consumption, moderate to high physical activity intensities of the adolescents and low socio economic status of most of their parents. There was a weak positive relationship between food consumption pattern and BMI for age of the participants. Furthermore, there was a weak negative relationship between physical activity level and BMI for age of participants
The participants’ demographics might have influenced their low food consumption pattern. Walking to school could have improved their physical activity level. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of the participants was low and this was in line with several similar studies. The low body mass index (BMI) for age and the high underweight observed could be attributed to the rural area they lived, their frequency of food consumption and energy reducing activity they engaged in within their domain. The schools as the agents of behavioural change can curtail any weight abnormalities that may develop among the adolescents because of the structured system that were put in place in form of games and available functional sporting facilities. The participants’ food consumption pattern and physical activity level greatly relate to participants overweight and obesity.
The low BMI for age within the normal range and the high underweight observed in the study points to a need for the adolescent parents and guardians to ensure that frequency of food consumption of their children are improved.
This can be achieved by increase frequency meals of the participants and also prepare lunch from home should be given to them to take to school daily. This will help to improve their food consumption. In addition, the schools authorities should establish appropriate food cafeteria in their schools where nutritious meals will be served for those students who may not come with their lunch.
The high underweight and low BMI observed could be attributed to the adolescent’s demography which indicated that majority of their parents had low level of education and engaged in farming as their main occupation. Empowering the adolescent parents by ensuring an improvement in the resources allocation to the rural communities in form of improved social amenities to stimulate economic development will enhance the majority of the parents and guardians standard of living.
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