Enhancing Perception And Knowledge Of The Use Of Tramadol Among Secondary School Students

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Enhancing Perception And Knowledge Of The Use Of Tramadol Among Secondary School Students

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

A drug is defined as any natural or artificial substance, other than food, that modifies the structure or function of a living organism due to its chemical or physical nature (Maline, 2007). In pharmacology, it is described as a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease, or used to improve physical or mental well-being in some other way. Chemical chemicals that change the nervous system’s function, affecting perception, emotion, or awareness, are known as psychoactive drugs (Dorwick, 2006). Recreational drugs are those that are taken for enjoyment rather than for medical objectives (Farhadinasab, 2008). These drugs include alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine, as well as opiates and amphetamines. Drugs are also utilized as food supplements, such as vitamin supplements, and we must profit from them in terms of bad health, even if they are recommended by physicians (Martin, 2007). On the contrary, if medications are misused, they may be hazardous and even deadly. Tramadol is an opiate pain reliever that is used to treat moderate to severe pain. The beginning of pain relief is generally within an hour when taken as an immediate-release oral formulation. Tramadol is a powerful painkiller that reduces pain by acting on the nerve system and brain (Elizabeth, 2008). Tramadol comes in a variety of forms, strengths, and brands. Some types and brands operate fast to relieve pain, while others gradually release the tramadol they contain over many hours to give consistent and consistent pain relief. These are known as “modified-release” products, and they frequently carry the letters ‘XL,’ ‘SR,’ or ’24hr’ in front of the brand name (Ksir, 2002). Aside from its pain-relieving properties, tramadol has been found to produce a euphoric high when used in excessive doses. When opiates like tramadol are taken with alcohol, the alcohol’s effects are amplified. People sometimes confuse substance abuse with drug misuse; however, drug abuse relates to medicine prescribed by a doctor, whereas substance abuse refers to compounds other than drugs, such as gasoline and glue (Bashirian, 2009). If a substance is intentionally used to create physiological or psychological effects for a purpose other than therapeutic purposes, it is called abused. According to Mahjoub (2008), substance misuse typically begins in adolescence with the use of tobacco and alcohol. Tramadol misuse among students, on the other hand, might be the consequence of interactions across peer groups, as well as the substance’s availability and nature. Cultural influences, parental conduct, and legislation and policies that restrict drug availability are some of the environmental variables that lead to drug misuse. Drug misuse has a significant negative influence (Krir, 2006). Drugs, according to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDCP), damage lives and communities, hinder sustainable human development, and produce criminality. Drug addiction has an impact on all sections of society in all nations, but especially on the freedom and development of young people, the world’s most important asset (Hassan, 2009). Drugs also pose a serious danger to human health, state independence, democracy, national stability, the structure of all societies, and the dignity and hope of millions of individuals and their families. Tramadol and other drug usage, according to Ray (2002), is a role in many accidents, injuries, vandalism, and criminality on college campuses, and is often a crucial issue when students have difficulty with their academics. Ironically, even college students who should avoid tramadol and other drugs experience the consequences of their classmates’ high-risk activities, such as confrontations or having to care for their drug-induced and inebriated colleagues (Mahjoub, 2008). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), by 2020, mental and drug use disorders will outnumber all physical diseases as the leading cause of disability globally (WHO, 2008). According to WHO (2013), at least 15.3 million people have drug use disorders, and drug usage is linked to serious health and social issues. According to NACADA (2012), there are a number of dangers linked with tramadol misuse, including dependent young people, higher health-care demands among youth who abuse alcohol and narcotics, and crimes caused by idleness and the youth’s drinking habits. Several psychological and environmental variables interact to worsen and prolong drug and substance misuse among Akure South LGA secondary school students. According to Tafesh (2013), the power of a society’s youth is undeniable; they serve as a first line of defense against any breakdown of the social fabric by upholding values and morality, as well as religion and tradition (Laura, 2012). From this perspective, if drug and substance abuse becomes widespread among community members, particularly among young people, the community faces disaster. Substance abuse and addictive behavior are ubiquitous phenomena that were recognized as a serious public health concern in the twentieth century (Rassool, 1998). Living with psychoactive substances appears to have been a part of human existence from ancient times, according to historical data (Gossop, 1993). The urge to enter a state of altered consciousness appears to be a natural aspect of the human condition. Unfortunately, the health and societal consequences of abusing these psychoactive drugs reflect alarming rates of illness and mortality (Gafor, 1997). The squealer of the physical, social, psychological, and economic devastation caused by psychoactive drug addiction affects not just the individual user but also the family. Following Israel’s illegal attack in Gaza in December 2008, a UN poll of Gaza people reported an increase in risk-taking behavior, including a large increase in drug addiction cases (Hammami, 2009). Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic with qualities comparable to codeine and morphine that was initially created in Germany in the 1970s and released in the 1990s as a commonly prescribed pain reliever, is one medicine connected with this trend (Han,1997). Tramadol is quite simple to purchase in Akure, either through fake prescriptions from pharmacies or on the black market, despite the fact that it is banned without a prescription in some areas. Prior to the 2008 offensive, news sources stated that up to 30% of males aged 14 to 30 had been taking Tramadol on a regular basis, with 15,000 displaying indications of addiction(O’Loughlin, 2008),idly or significant others, and the whole community.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent years, drug abuse and addiction has emerged as one of the most serious public health issues (Thomson, 1998). The relevance of lay ideas in conveying information is evident in drug addiction prevention and rehabilitation efforts. Several research looked at people’s attitudes and views about various types of drugs. The most important factor of lay opinions regarding heroin addiction, according to (Furnham, 1996), was the participants’ political views. Certain factors, according to research, can raise the chance of drug dependence (Royo, 1997). Drug abuse is more common among young individuals (Bordonada et al,1997). In recent years, there has been an upsurge in the abuse of marketed pharmaceuticals, highlighting the necessity for abuse-liability assessment (Samhsa, 2003). Tramadol addiction is on the rise among Akure secondary school students, according to surveys. Prior to 2010, up to 30% of males aged 14 to 30 had used the drug. Despite a sustained battle against drug and substance abuse, hundreds of boxes of Tramadol continue to find their way into the hands of Akure’ residents who are becoming increasingly reliant on the medication, with some becoming severely addicted (Thomson, 1998). In light of this, the researcher plans to look at how to enhance secondary school students’ knowledge and attitudes around tramadol usage in Akure south.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study’s major goal is to look into ways to improve secondary school students’ understanding, attitudes, and perceptions about tramadol usage in Akure South LGA. However, in order to help in the completion of the study, the researcher plans to accomplish the following precise goal:

  1. To look into the impact of tramadol use on students’ academic performance in Akure South LGA.
  2. To look at the role of parents in preventing drug misuse among secondary school students.
  3. To look at the role of parents in preventing substance abuse among secondary school students.
  4. Determine the effect of tramadol on the psychological well-being of Akure secondary school students.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the impact of tramadol use on students’ academic performance in Akure South LGA?
  2. What are the roles of parents in preventing drug misuse among secondary school students?
  3. What are the roles of parents in preventing substance abuse among secondary school students?
  4. What are the effects of tramadol on the psychological well-being of Akure secondary school students?

1.5 Significance of the Study

It is expected that when the study is completed, the findings will be of great importance to the counseling unit in secondary schools in Akure because the study will aid them in effectively looking into the menace of drugs (tramadol) and substance abuse among secondary school students. The study will also be of great importance to the NDLEA Nigerian drugs law enforcement agency because the study seeks to remind them on the need to mob out this substance from the street so that this student does not become addicted.

1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study’s goal is to improve secondary school students’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about tramadol use in Akure south LGA. However, numerous variables worked against the study’s goals:

i. Research material availability:

The researcher’s research material is insufficient, restricting the study’s scope.

ii. Time:

The study’s time period does not allow for broader coverage since the researcher must balance other academic activities and examinations.

iii. Finance:

The funding available for the research project does not allow for a wider scope of coverage due to restricted finances and the researcher’s other academic obligations.

1.7 Definition of Terms


Is an opioid pain reliever available under the trade names Ultram and others. It is used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.


Is the process of organizing, identifying, and interpreting sensory data in order to represent and understand the information or environment being given.


Is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or abilities, that is gained by experience or education through observing, discovering, or learning.

Enhancing Perception And Knowledge Of The Use Of Tramadol Among Secondary School Students

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Enhancing Perception And Knowledge Of The Use Of Tramadol Among Secondary School Students


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