Socio Demographic Makeup And Gang Association In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Illorin Kwara State)

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Socio Demographic Makeup And Gang Association In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Illorin Kwara State)


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Gang associations in Nigeria have been a key issue that opposes democratic governance and a problem which calls for serious attention. The gang associations are seen or viewed to be a fountainhead of violence and insecurity in Nigeria. Hence, for a reasonable growth to take place in the country, the society must be free of at least 60 percent of crime. This will help move all form of development forward. Most cities in Nigeria have been turned into cities of criminal gangs where residents are afraid of carrying out their legitimate functions on the frame of the activities of these bullies and gangsters. The insecurity inflicted on the people by these gang associations has made the cities unsafe, as their activities have reached a strange level in many cities in the country.

The term socio-demographic is defined as a group known by its sociological and demographic characteristics. Socio-demographic groups are mostly used for a careful study of something to learn about its parts, what to do, and how they are related to each other in the social sciences, and also for marketing and medical studies.

Demographic characteristics can be seen as age, sex, place of residence, religion, educational level and marital status while sociological characteristics are more of objective traits, which include membership in organizations, household status, interests, values and social groups. Thus, a group founded on the basis of both sociological and demographic traits, such as people under 30 years of age who have interest in environmentalism, is a typical example of a socio-demographic group. Studies that section people into groups by education, relative income, ethnicity and gender are considered socio-demographic studies.

Age and sex are the most paramount elements that influence the human race and health and are the major characteristics by which analyses have been carried out in this report. There is therefore a large literature centers on sex differences in health and mortality. While other authors argue on the need of either biological or socio-economic and behaviour factors in these sex differences. It is largely agreed that women live longer than men. On the total, women in countries like Nigeria live more than five years longer than men. Marital status is also another factor that has been found to affect health and mortality. Married people have significantly better health and a lower mortality than their single counterparts. These results are specifically strong for men. A large number of studies observed that widowed, divorced and never married individuals were more likely to die than married people. Therefore, it is important carefully look into changes in marital status with time. As people age and die, there is an increase in the proportion of widows and widowers. This can lead to economic, social, psychological and other changes. Cohabitation is another area on which this study will focus on. This is important because of a rapid increase in cohabitation that could be reflected in the cohorts the population. Among other factors, living arrangements, family ties, relationship and support are also considered to be of significant importance for health and mortality, especially at older ages. The impact of family could have a positive influence in terms of the well-being of the older person and can also provide a good preventive measure against lengthy institutionalization. In Nigeria and other developed countries, the proportion of elderly living alone has significantly increased over the years. Howbeit, few studies have carefully examined the overall influence of living arrangements on health and survival. Patterns have changed drastically in the previous years with older adults living alone as they age. As living alone becomes more ‘normative’, its negative influence on health and wellbeing may become less powerful. Childlessness and the number of children could be a foretell for lack of social correlations and, in consequence, of health and mortality. These are of huge importance at old age, specifically when it is related with a decrease in physical functioning and widowhood. Children can mediate environmental stress that threatens to overwhelm the older parents’ ability to cope and, at the same time, close intergenerational link may assist to make up for the lost support of the deceased spouse. The number of children in itself does not necessarily equate with meaningful help and support, so the association with mortality reflects inconsistent trends. On this premise, this study seeks to examine the relationship between socio demographic makeup and gang association in Nigeria.

This study will also discover the socio-demographic factors that contribute to a better understanding of the disability process and to differentiate groups of people, who, due to certain characteristics, are at greater risk for disability and social handicap.


1.2 Statement Of The General Problem

The existence and rise of gang related activities and associations has been a major setback for the achievement of adequate security in the Nigerian state as it has escalated security issues and social vices such as rape, armed robbery, drug related issues amongst others. The existence of gangs in the Nigerian state has resulted in lack of foreign direct investment as many prospective investors shy away from investing for fear of not recuperating their money as a result of security challenges thus leaving the economic state of Nigeria worse.


1.3 Aims And Objectives Of The Study

The major aim of the study is to examine demographic characteristics or make up of gang association in Ilorin Kwara state.

Other specific objectives of the study include;

  1. To examine the relationship between age bracket and gang association in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the relationship between gender and gang association in Nigeria.
  3. To examine the impact of gang association on the economy of Nigeria.
  4. To examine the effect of gang association on the achievement of adequate security in Nigeria.
  5. To recommend ways of reducing gang association in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the relationship between age bracket and gang association in Nigeria?
  2. What is the relationship between gender and gang association in Nigeria?
  3. What is the impact of gang association on the economy of Nigeria?
  4. What is the effect of gang association on the achievement of adequate security in Nigeria?
  5. What are the ways of reducing gang association in Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. H0: There is no significant relationship between gender and gang association in Nigeria.
    H1: There is a significant relationship between gender and gang association in Nigeria.
  2. H0: There is no significant relationship between age and gang association in Nigeria.
    H1: There is a significant relationship between age and gang association in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The study would be of immense importance to government at all levels as it would unveil the demographic set up of gang associations in Nigeria while at the same time recommend ways of reducing gang associations in Nigeria. The study would also be importance tio students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further study on the subject matter.


1.7 Scope And Limitations Of The Study

The study is restricted to the demographic makeup and gang associations in Ilorin kwara state, Nigeria.

Limitations Of The Study
Financial constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)

Time constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Socio Demographic Makeup And Gang Association In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Illorin Kwara State)


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