Moral Background Of Parents And Academic Performance Of Senior Secondary Students In Biase Local Government Area Of Cross River State
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moral background of parents and academic performance of senior secondary students in Biase local government area of Cross River State four research objectives and questions were formulated to guide the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consisted of students in Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 400 students. Two instruments were developed for this study namely: Moral background of parents and academic performance of students. Both instruments were designed by the researcher and were validated by the supervisor. The instruments were also subjected to statistical analysis using independent t-test for hypothesis. The result of the study revealed that family life significantly influences students’ academic attainment. Based on the result it was concluded that the dependent variable (students’ academic performance) is influenced by family moral and family life background. It was recommended among others that meaningful jobs by government based on parental qualification should be provided for parents and community, seminars should be organized for the parents to enable them take care and teach their children good morals.
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Definition of Terms
- 1.8 Organization of Study
2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Family Life and Student’s Academic Performance
- 2.2 Parents Moral and Student’s Academic Performance
- 2.3 Parents Norms and Students’ Academic Performance
- 2.4 Parents Value and Students’ Academic Performance
- 2.5 Theoretical Framework
- 2.5.1 Parental Attachment Theory
- 2.5.2 Good Parenting Theory
- 2.6 Empirical Review of Related Literature
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Research Instrument
- 3.5 Administration of the Instrument
- 3.6 Method of Data Analysis
4.0 Results and Discussion
- 4.1 Results
- 4.2 Discussion
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
Education in the largest sense is any activity or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character and physical ability of an individual. It is the life wire of development of any nation. Many people regarded education as the best legacy that a nation can give to its citizens especially the young ones. This is because the future of any nation depends on the younger generation that will take over the mantle of leadership from the older generation. Secondary education is the foundation of education upon which other educational systems anchored. Ajibola (2011), defined secondary education as the education given to an individual aged nine to fourteen years. National policy on education (2014) refers to secondary education as the education given in institution for children aged nine to fourteen years plus. The importance of education at the secondary level is of importance being the foundation where training of the citizens has to be focused in an attempt to address national development.
It is clear that secondary school students are significant in the life of nation since they are the pivot foundation and future leaders. An individual that will contribute to the life of a nation must be informed, stable both emotionally and academically. The secondary school students can achieve soundness and be relevant in the programme of national development only if they are academically sound to make positive contributions to the national life (Georgious, 2005). The realization of this, necessitated government’s efforts in terms of funding, policy formulation and teachers retiring to ensure that secondary schools are more vibrant in giving a child all round development to be able to contribute to national development.
A family is a social unit comprising father, mother and children living together in one abode. Uwaifo (2008) defined family as a primary social group by parents, offspring and possible all other members of the extended family. A child’s family background influences his/her academic attainment moral background according to Vanghu (2011) refers to all the conditions and circumstances in the family which influences the child’s physically, intellectually and emotionally. Family environment has more chances of increasing or decreasing the intellectual ability of a child. Weinser and Garnier (2012) posit that a family as a small kinship structure group has the key function of socializing the new born until he/she becomes an adult. It is the family that forms the basic foundation for any formal education of a child. The family produces the child, nurture him/her physically, mentally, psychologically and spiritually for the school environment. Most importantly, the child identification with ethnic group, culture, religions, social class and even how he/she views him/herself as a male or female have their origin in the family.
According to Pirola (2009) the family is the bedrock of value formation both positively and negatively.
Families are of various sizes. Family size has to do with the number of people in a single family which may include father, mother, children and perhaps other extended family members all living in one home. Yara and Tunde–Yara (2010) reported that the size of family determines to a greater extent on the relative attention and time which the children received from their parents. Large families which are usually characterized by polygamous marriage are more common among the lower class of the society. These children may suffer poverty and lack of parental care and encouragement which will hinder their academic attainment. On the other hand, students from families with fewer siblings are likely to receive more parental attention and support which will increase their academic success. It is through the family that norms, values, morals as well as proper integration into the society are transmitted. Desforges and Abouchaar (2003) observed that the state of the home affects an individual since the parents are the first socialization agent in the individual’s life. Families show different attributes towards the education of their children. Both favourable and unfavourable attitudes of the parents have an effect on the academic attainment of the child in school. Parents’ morals, family life background, parent’s socio-economic status, birth order, parent occupation, marital status, income level and educational status could affect the academic attainment of the child in school. From the above evidence, it appears that family morals and family life background has a link with the academic attainment. It is in the height of this observation that the researcher developed interest in investigating the influence of family morals and family life background on the academic performance of students in Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The role families’ plays to the pupils at any given point in time in a child’s life cannot be over highlighted. The family is relevant and very significant to the well being of a child as well as his/her later development in life. Family is the first unit in the social order where the child’s upbringings began after birth, still in cradle. According to Adewumi et al (2012) childhood could be liken to a letters impressed in the shout of a young tree, which grow, and later enlarge into an integral part of the whole. Sequel to the above, rightful beginning makes the most essential part of every child’s upbringing/education. The contribution of the parent to the training of the pupil determines how far he/she will go in life.
It is well noted that when the school work together with the family through learning support system, pupils tends to succeed better not just in schools but in life.
The family is an institution as well as an agent of socialization saddle with the responsibility of determining the pupil’s attitude towards intellectual, religious, character and moral upbringing. According to Aliyu (2016) the family lays the fundamentals of moral and religious upbringing of the child, and in a way dictate how he/she relate with others regarding the idea of right and wrong, good and bad. The family unit plays the role of helping the pupils in determining his/her future career pursuit through socializing them into their choice of vocation or a trade for self-reliance, by exposing the child to either pursue the career of the family or any favorable skill before the child grow to become an adult (Jekayinka and Oke,2003). The family here includes everything that surrounds within the family itself and includes the family background, their socio-economic status, broken home etc. According to Mpiluka (2014), Family backgrounds have been of immense significant in determining the academic achievement of a child in schools all over the world. Specifically because academic achievement often time are motivated by the type of people the child interacts with in their early stages in life from their homes. Muola (2010) observed that family background could be likening to all the conditions and circumstances within the family which influences the child physically, intellectually and emotionally as he/she grow up. The Child that grew up from different family backgrounds are affected differently by such family condition, which are the reasons behind why some children have good family background while others have a very poor background. The differences in our family background are some of the consequences in the variation in pupil’s academic achievement in school.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to examine moral background of parents and academic performance of senior secondary students in Biase local government area of Cross River State. Specifically, the study will attempt to find out the following objectives;
- Identify the influence of parents’ morals on pupils’ academic performance in Primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State.
- To ascertain whether broken homes has any influence on pupil’s academic performance in Primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State.
- To determine the influence of parents’ values and norms on pupil’s academic performance in primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State.
1.4 Research Questions
The below research questions guide this study; they include:
- What is influence of parents’ morals on pupils’ academic performance in Primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State?
- Do broken homes have any influence on pupil’s academic performance in Primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State?
- What is the influence of parents’ values and norms on pupil’s academic performance in primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The below hypotheses guides study; they include:
HO1: There is no significant influence of parents’ morals on pupils’ academic performance in Primary schools in Biase local government area of Cross River State
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will provide findings that are useful for educational stakeholders and academic institutions with respect to the influence of parents’ morals, values, norms and beliefs on the academic performance of children and their total development. Also, the findings of this study will contribute to empirical literature on the existing knowledge and also serve as reference for future studies in related areas.
1.7 Definition of Terms
is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
Is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.
1.8 Organization of Study
The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
It is very important to note that the aim of the educational system is the learning outcome. This is measured by students’ academic performance. However, this can be influenced by certain factors. This study includes therefore that the dependent variable (students’ academic performance) is influence and/or relate to the independence, variable such as family life, parents’ moral, parents norms and parent value. However, they may be other variables that contribute directly or indirectly to the poor academic performance of the students.
Based on the finding of this study and conclusion drawn, the following recommendations were reached;
- Parent/families should adopt a responsible way of life which will be a model to their children.
- Government should organize community seminars where the parents’ morals can be boosted.
- There is need to sensitization of the people whose norms, culture and tradition doesn’t support western education.
- In this 21st century, every child is important whether male or female should be value and sent to school, up to higher education.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Do parents’ educational backgrounds affect students’ academic performance in Nigeria?
There has been an outcry against the poor performance of students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. This research investigated the difference between the academic performance of students from parents with high educational background and students from parents with low educational background.
How does family background affect a child’s academic performance?
When certain factors are eminent in a child’s family background, it is clear that the child will be motivated and driven towards high academic goal.
What factors influence a child’s academic performance in school?
Educated parents may also have library at home, stocked with novels, encyclopedia and other educational books and educational audio visual tapes. When children make use of these materials, it will enhance their intellect. Also, hereditary factor could also influence a child’s academic performance in school.
How does the home affect students’ academic performance?
Intellectuals had identified various areas in the home that affect students’ academic performance. To some intellectuals attribute poor performance to parents’ educational level, family size and socio-economic status. A host of others focuses on the marital status and parents-child relationship.