Effects Of Indecent Behaviour Among Adolescents Of Secondary Schools

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


This study investigated the effects of indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents on learning Mathematics as perceived by secondary school teachers in Gombi Education Zone Adamawa state. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design method. The target population for this study consisted of all secondary school teachers in the zone. Purposive sampling technique was used to select three hundred respondents from two Local Government Areas. The questionnaire titled “Effects of Indecent Behaviour Questionnaire” was used to collect data. The validity of the instrument was carried out by an expert in Guidance and Counselling. The reliability of the instrument titled “Effects of Indecent Behaviour Questionnaire “was carried out using test re-test method and Kudder-Richardson formulae was used to determine the internal consistency. Reliability estimate of the test showed a reliability index of 0.86. Frequency counts, simple percentages and t-test were used to analyze the data.

The findings revealed that indecent behaviour is caused by poor parental upbringing. Issues such as high failure of students in external examinations, disruption of teaching and learning, low cognitive ability, school dropout and student poor performance in class are the effects of indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents. The findings of the study also showed that there was no significant difference between male and female teachers’ perception on the causes of indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents. The major strategy employed by teachers for curbing behavioural problem is the reinforcement technique. In conclusion, in-school adolescents’ indecent behaviour is on the rise and has serious effects on students’ learning and their general academic performance. To this end, teachers, counsellors, school heads in collaboration with the government should continue to provide right information to in-school adolescents about the negative effects of indecent behaviour.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Organization of the study

Chapter Two

Review Of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

Research Methods

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sources of Data
  • 3.3 Population and Sample
  • 3.4 Research Instrument
  • 3.5 Validity and Reliability of Instrument
  • 3.6 Data Collection and Analysis

Chapter Four

Results And Discussion Of Findings

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion of findings

Chapter Five

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the study

The study of adolescents schooling is important to social scientists and policy makers who are interested in influencing adolescent development, because it is through educational institution that the greatest number of young people can easily be reached. Sociologists have observed on numerous occasions that schools in large complex societies are expected to help sort adolescents for societal roles and occupational positions. At present the larger society assigns the job of assessing and evaluating student growth and potential, in large part, to teachers. How well students perform on tests, the grade they receive and the judgements their teachers make about their academic performance have important, long run consequences for both students and society.

The performance of students in academic tasks has always been of special interest to educators and stake-holders in education industry, because most of the compliments by the public that standard of education is falling are in relation to the poor performance of student in public examination in recent times. Across the nation, parents, educators and policy makers are committed to improving the academic achievement of children in their communities. achievement is typically measured by performance on standardized tests and the federal ministry of Education has mandated that schools improve students test performance (National Policy of Education). The National Union of teachers has called for ‘clear, rigorous academic standards tests to measures whether students are meeting the standards; and a system to hold schools, school districts and students accountable’ (NUT seminar on outcome learning, 2001). in order to measure these goals; schools must improve their students performance on standardized tests. Grades, while not the only or necessarily the best measure of academic performance is a strong predictor of whether a student will drop out from high school (Battin Pearson, 2000).

Education is the medium by which a person achieves success in his/her life, in the society and in the world,and
it lays the foundation of personality.. According to the Ministry of Education and Human Resources (2014), the secondary school provides an education that enables the fulfilment of the four pillars of the Delores Report, namely learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, and learning to live together. It should also provide the adolescent student with the necessary skills that allow him/her to adjust easily and smoothly to therapid physical, emotional, mental and social changes (Garcia & Santiago, 2017). Indeed, the adolescence represents the period between 13 and 19 years old when students manifest an identity crisis that may have an impact on their mental make-up and attitudes towards people and circumstances ((Naganandini, 2017).

Student indecent behaviour is a source of worry for all school stakeholders. It is a multifaceted and complex school problem that is manifested in various forms (Ali, Dada, Isiaka& Salmon 2014). The various common forms of student indecent are late coming, backing classes, drug and alcoholic abuse, bullying, love affairs, vandalism, assault on the school prefects, insult on educators, wearing the wrong school uniform, use of the mobile phone, smoking, writing or using foul language in class, work not done, class disruption and immoral acts (Gutuza& Mapolisa, 2015; Jeeroburkhan, 2016). The principal’s role is to design and implement the most effective learner discipline management strategies in order to instil a positive school climate.

However, to be successful as an effective learner discipline management leader in his/her school, the principal must understand the various causes of student behaviour that are predominant in the school. Indecent is generally defined as any behaviour that does not conform to the established rules of a group of individuals or the society at large (Idris 2016). At this stage, an adolescent finds it difficult to conform to the norms of the society. It could also be referred to as the engagement of people in criminal offences, illegal, antisocial and unethical behaviour. In a nutshell, any behaviour that violates the norm or social standard of the society is indecent. Indecent behaviour could also be any form of behaviour that contravenes the rules and regulations or even laws that govern an establishment.

Some researchers have identified the different types of indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents; these include truancy, examination malpractice, substance abuse, bullying, vandalism, and sexual immorality (Esere 2008). Goode (2007) further stated that behaviour that is indecent in one society may not be in another. Even within a society, what is indecent behaviour today may not be indecent behaviour tomorrow. Suleiman (2011) noted that a particular behaviour is antisocial if any of these three criteria are seen; when behaviour does not allow a person to function effectively with others as a member of the society, when such behaviour does not permit the person to meet his or her own needs and when behaviour has a negative effect on the wellbeing of others.

Boyd (2015) reported that a lot of youths are involved in the use of tobacco, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin. In the same vein, Idris (2016) explained that there are many cases of cultism, sexual abuse, acts of vandalism, blackmail, threats and intimidations reported by classroom teachers as well as school principals. He affirmed that there is an increase in the rate of moral decadence among youths as a result of the lack of discipline. Such indiscipline acts among students have culminated in juvenile delinquency Many researchers have identified some causes of indecent behaviour among in- school adolescents. Indecent behaviour in the classroom increases the stress level of teachers and at the same time changes the classroom dynamics. It is also a big challenge for learning and a risk factor for students’ academic achievement.

A disruptive classmate’s negative impact on peers is also of growing concern, because disruptive classroom behavioural climate impedes the learning process and lowers the school performance of the entire class (Blank &Shavit, 2016). Children with behaviour problems often are underachievers, which is alarming as academic success has a great importance for a child’s long term development. The uses of the psychological principles are the various ways in which deviant behaviours are managed in schools. This approach is based on some systematic application psychological principles. Behavioural modification can simply be defined as the systematic application of principles derived from learning theories and experience in psychology (Asonibare2016).

The techniques are used in extinguishing unwanted behaviour and at the same time helping to increase existing positive behaviours. It can also be used to teach new behaviour patterns. In extinguishing unwanted deviant behaviour among in-school adolescents, there are many strategies that can be employed. In schools, counsellors use different behavioural modification techniques in managing indecent behaviour. The environment in which adolescents live can influence them, especially when there is lack of parental guidance. The school is a major and important environment where a child develops during the formative years. When parents do not consistently react to the undesired behaviour of an adolescent, the child might continue toengage in more deviant behaviours in the school. Some children resort to antisocial behaviour due to their inability to cope with the academic rigours of the school. (Suleiman, 2011 & Babatunde,2016)

1.2 Statement of the problem

unruly behaviour has continued to disrupt school academic programmes to the extent that teachers are unable to cover the contents of the school curriculum. This has often resulted into turning out half-baked graduates Omotosho (2009) notes that indecent behaviours in schools has reached an alarming rate; this could be traced to the home, society and the attitude of students towards schooling. These in turn have contributed to poor academic performance of many in-school adolescents. In order for these students to perform well in external examinations, they resort to examination malpractices. The high incidence of indecent behaviour among secondary school students in Gombi Educational Zone have become public concern and despite government intervention, they are yet to resolve the problem. Hence, this study is of immense important.

1.3 Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study is to determine the effects of indecent behaviour among adolescents of secondary schools. Specifically, the study seeksto:

  1. Factors that cause indecent behaviour among in- school adolescents
  2. Determine strategies to be adopted in curbing adolescents’ indecent behaviour in the school.
  3. Examine the effect of indecent behaviours on student achievement on learning of Biology.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the factors that cause indecent behaviour?
  2. What are the causes of indecent behaviours among students in Gombi Educational Zone?
  3. To what extent do indecent behaviours affects student academic performance in learning Biology in Gombi Educational Zone?
  4. What are the strategies in curbing indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses have been postulated to be tested at0.05 level of significance was used to guide the study.

H01: There is no significant difference between male and female teachers’ perception on the causes of indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents.

H02: There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male and female teachers with regards to the consequences of adolescents’ indecent behaviour.

1.6 Significance of the study

This study is significant in a number of ways. The findings of the study are of great relevance to psychologist, government/policy makers, Curriculum designers, teachers, guidance/counsellors, parents/public, students and other researchers.

The assertion by some theories on which this study anchored such as social cognitive theory, that a learners’ ability to adopt desired behaviour depends on his environment has been tested and supported by the findings of this study.

This is shown by the existence of a significant difference between urban and rural students’ measures of improvement on their indecent behaviour. This is of great benefit to social and educational psychologists because it has confirmed the authenticity of environment (social and physical) being a factor on which students’ learning depends. This is aninsight for development of potential theory of Adolescents’ social and indecent behaviour changes.

Besides, there is a growing concern about the effect sexuality education in secondary schools can make in risky indecent behaviour in students. Somesuggestions have been made regarding how to teach sexuality education as to better motivate students to learn it and adopt desired indecent behaviour. Teaching by stressing both the cognitive and boosting of students’ belief in their ability to carry out the desired behaviour using modeling/Roleplay, participatory methods accompanied by rein enforcement and punishment posited by the theories (Percierved Self Efficacy and Social Cognitive) on which the study is based (as used in the study) are examples of such strategies. Thus, this study is deemed theoretically significant because it has provided insights into the currently existing theories on teaching and learning which have been known to motivate students to learn and adopt the desired behaviour. In particular, two of such theories (Bandura, 1997 and 2001) were reviewed and the findings of the present study are considered to be theoretically significant because they contributed additional empirically – derived theoretical body of knowledge on Bandura’s theories on self efficacy and social cognitive learning, this time using subjects drawn from secondary schools.

Policy makers can be motivated by the result of this study to begin to take bold steps in making the teaching and learning of sexuality and indecency in schools compulsory. This could be achieved by making sexuality education one of the core subjects that has its separate time table and is taken in examinations by students.

The significance of the study to the teachers include the fact that teachers can now view discussion of sexuality and indecency with students as appropriate. They can begin to help students acquire more factual knowledge of sexuality irrespective of their gender.

The findings of this study are also relevant to school guidance/counselors because they will begin to incorporate sexuality counseling in their services to students and become more empathic and accepting in counseling relationships with the students.

The curriculum designers, can now modify secondary school curriculum to integrate sexuality education that will blend well with the immediate environment of the students.

To parents, the findings of this study if they are advertised in parents’ forum will be of great significance because, the study has proved that teaching young persons sexuality education is not counter productive. It therefore opens an avenue for parents to start communicating sexual issues with their children at home.

To the students, the findings of this study have shown that both male and female students benefit greatly from sexuality issues if adequate instructions are provided to them. This will enhance their attitude and interests towards sexuality education. This is true because the findings of this study call for elimination of gender differences in learning of indecency and sexuality issues.

1.7 Scope of the study

This study examines the effects of indecent behaviour among adolescents of secondary schools. The study relates to how indecent behaviour affects academic performance. The study was carried among selected secondary schools in Gombi Educational Zone, Adamawa state.

1.8 Limitation of the study

The following limitations were anticipated in this study:

  1. Since the study was only carried out in only one province, the results may not be generalisable to the whole country. The researcher collected data on his own without research assistants.
  2. Financial constraints were also anticipated in the current study. Although the researcher received assistance from the bursary, it was not possible to carry out the study at national level.
  3. The researcher is a full time employee so time to carry out the study was limited.

1.9 Organization of the study

The study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one deals with the study’s introduction and gives a background to the study. Chapter two reviews related and relevant literature. The chapter three gives the research methodology while the chapter four gives the study’s analysis and interpretation of data. The study concludes with chapter five which deals on the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

Chapter Five

5.1 Conclusion

In-school adolescents’ indecent behaviour is on the rise and has serious effects on student learning and their general academic performance. Issues such as high failure of students in external examinations, disruption of teaching and learning, low cognitive ability, school dropout and student poor performance in class are the effects of indecent behaviour among in-school adolescents. The strategies of managing this ugly menace include; the training of teachers on emergent strategies to manage indecent behaviour should be recurrent. Information based intervention is an effective strategy in handling indecent behaviour, so teachers in collaboration with school authorities and government, should always provide right information to in- school adolescents about the negative effects of indecent behaviours.

5.2 Recommendations

The following are recommended based on the findings of this study;

  1. Counsellors should be accorded their place within the school setting to enable them discharge their duties as effectively and efficiently aspossible.
  2. Discipline students with indecent behaviours and discipline decisively. Often, punishments and sanctions for certain offences are in the school’s books as cosmetics. In practice, principals sometimes do not have the final say in disciplining their students and since students know this, they tend to exploit it.
  3. Parental responsibilities need another look. Parents need to revive their roles as parents; it is not enough to have children and leave the responsibility of rearing, guiding and moulding them for the school alone.
  4. Both the home and the school should endeavour to co-operate in the interest of the children. These schools’ administration cannot operate in isolation. Therefore, the society also will have to re-orientate its values. Since the school is part of the society, what happens therefore in the society could to gain the attention of the secondary school students. This, in essence means that if the society is disciplined, there will be less disciplinary problems in the secondary schools. The society too should not hesitate to lend its support for the war being waged against indecent behaviours.
  5. The mass media especially the visual ones should be careful in what to feature and what not to, since most youth imitates and tend to exhibit a lot of what they borrow from these agents of information. As Nigeria is a developing nation, effort should be directed against polluting the characters of our youths since they are the hope of the nation.
  6. Finally, the teachers should realize that the future of the country is in their hands whether or not the society appreciates it or not. With the co-operation of the government, the parents, teachers and the students, in the spirit of good understanding, love and charity, the government aim of providing disciplined, honest and patriotic citizens of the nation or country will be attained.

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