An Appraisal Of The Relationship Between Teaching Methods And Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students

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Project and Seminar Material for Education


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the study

It is widely accepted that education is one of the leading tools for promoting economic development as it covers some processes individuals go through to help them develop and use their potentials (Adeyemi and Adu, 2010). Furthermore, Okeke (2007) stated that, through education, individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary for effective living.

The main purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a major change in the learner (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge sharing, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and lead to better academic outcomes. In the traditional era, many teachers widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners in being opposite to student-centered methods.

Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student’s learning have always raised considerable interest in the field of educational research (Hightower et al., 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning always try to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance improvement in student’s learning. Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the many students is basically linked to the use of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners (Adunola, 2011). Many researches on the effectiveness of teaching methods show that the quality of teaching is often reflected by the achievements of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the methods used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) is of the opinion that teachers need to be used to different teaching approaches that take recognition of the magnitude of the wide concepts to be covered.

The main goals of science education are to develop understandings of biological systems, the methods of scientific inquiry, prepare students to make responsible decisions concerning science-related social issues and inform students about possible science careers (Bybee, Carlson-Powell and Trowbridge, 2007). To reach these goals, different learning environments, teaching approaches and methods are important aspects to consider also in school biology education. For instance, Joyce and Weil (2011) define teaching as information processing models, personal models, social interaction models and behaviour modification models.

Given the range of the criteria that biology would strive to satisfy in the schools, the inclusion of some knowledge of biology in the school curriculum becomes an increasing obvious need. The acquisition of this knowledge of biology and understanding should not be left to chance operations. A fundamental frame work of biology therefore has to be laid at the senior secondary school level not just for those intending to pursue a career in biology but more generally as a part of the educational foundation which every student should have before leaving school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Students offering biology in senior secondary school who experience a mismatch between teaching methods used during teaching and their preferred learning pattern often feel that their learning needs are being addressed using an unfamiliar language. The mismatch poses a difficulty for some students in understanding the teachings delivered, leading to lower grades (Odundo, 2003).

According to Tella (2010) biology like other subjects often record poor students’ performance both in internal and external examinations. Many factors contributed to the poor performance of students in examination, these factors include: the use of old materials and methods in teaching such as chalkboards, outdated textbooks, inability of the teachers to put across the concepts to the students, lack of skills and competence required for teaching, lack of teaching materials and necessary equipment, lack of active participation of students inbiology.

These problems confronting the teaching techniques used in biology class is further amplified with lack of interactive ICT software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving certain instructional goals (Onasanya, 2002).It is against this backdrop that this research seeks to present a critical appraisal of the relationship between teaching methods and academic performance of secondary school students in biology with a special reference to five randomly selected secondary schools in Educational District V Ojo zone of Lagos State.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The general objective of this study was to explore the relationship between teaching methods and academic performance of secondary school students in biology. Other specific objectives are:

  1. To investigate if there is any significant relationship between teacher-centered method and students’ academic performance in biology.
  2. To determine the effect of student-centered teaching method on students academic outcomes in biology.
  3. To find out if the use of ICT enhances students’ learning in biology.
  4. To identify current challenges to the teaching method used in teaching biology in senior secondary school.
  5. To provide plausible recommendations on how to improve the teaching methods used in teaching biology.

1.4 Research Questions

This study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. Is there any significant relationship between teacher-centered teaching methods and students’ academic performance in biology?
  2. What is the impact of student-centered teaching methods on student’s academic outcomes in biology?
  3. Does the use of ICT enhance students’ learning in biology?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance:

Hypothesis 1:

Ho1: There is no significant relationship between teacher-centered methods and students’ academic performance in biology.

Hypothesis 2:

Ho2: Student-centered teaching technique has no impact on students’ academic outcomes in biology.

Hypothesis 3:

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between the use of ICT and students’ learning outcomes in biology.


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Frequently Asked Questions


How effective are the three teaching methods on student academic performance?

The differential effectiveness of the three teaching methods on student academic performance was analysed using the General Linear Model based univariate ANOVA technique. The F (2, 106) statistic (= 10.125; p < 0.05) and the Tukey HSD post-hoc results indicate significant differences on the effectiveness of the three teaching methods.

Why is the teaching method regarded as more effective?

The teaching method is regarded more effective since it does not centralize the flow of knowledge from the lecturer to the student (Lindquist, 1995).The approach also motivates goal-orientated behaviour among students, hence the method is very effective in improving student achievement (Slavin, 1996).

How are students’ assessment test scores derived from the lecturer?

A sample of 109 undergraduate students from the College’s Department of Economic and Business Sciences was used for the study. Using the inferential statistics course, students’ assessment test scores were derived from the internal class test prepared by the lecturer.

Is revising the teaching method necessary to prepare future Accountants?

The findings in this study is revisiting and revising the current teaching methods is necessary to prepare future accountants for a career in accounting. Using this method, the intereaction between student and teacher or with classmates is achieved. 

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