Impact Of Class Size On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance

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Impact Of Class Size On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

As the school population grows, so do class numbers, and student performance becomes a problem (Olulola, 2007). Class size, according to Dror (1995), has become a topic that is frequently cited in the educational literature as having an impact on students’ moods and accomplishment, as well as administration, quality, and school budgets. In his opinion, class size is virtually entirely a managerial choice over which instructors have little or no influence. Most investigations begin with the premise that class size will be a key driver of students’ level of performance. Under reality, with the exception of a few research, many have shown that, in ideal circumstances, class size appears to be a crucial determinant (Ajila, 2007). The first point that has to be clarified is how many pupils should be considered a large group and what should be considered a small group. Bray (1990) observed that small groups have few professors with tiny pools of talent, provide a restricted variety of courses, and typically find it difficult to justify costly library investments… Their students have little rivalry and interest because they have the same instructor for their whole school experience. The description looks to be the polar opposite of what happens in a big gathering. Large school/class sizes, on the other hand, are generally impersonal, with larger curricula and more support for instructors, but children may have discipline issues as teachers cannot readily get to know their pupils (Kim, 2010). They find it simple to sort kids into groups based on their abilities, while work ethic may endure the test of time. The National Policy on Education (1977, updated in 1981) prescribed a numerical strength of 20 in pre-primary, 30 in primary, and a maximum of 40 in secondary schools. Because of the high population density in cities, these directions look impossible. According to statistics, large courses have a size of 30-336 students while small classes have a size of 8-45 students (Kolo1991). The empirical research on class size and academic success has been cumbersome and perplexing. Jordan (1964) determined that School Location, among other factors, was directly connected to mean accomplishment level of students in all the selected subjects in his examination of the inter-relationship between intelligence, achievement, and socio-economic condition of high schools. When educational possibilities are equivalent, however, the size of the school and length of attendance have little or no influence on kids’ success, according to a report by some researchers on primary school students. In his conclusion, he claimed that instructors had a clear preference for the size of the schools in which they desire to teach, and that the larger the school, the lower the level of student accomplishment. The discovery that a strong and persistent association exists in the accomplishment of students in small classrooms of roughly 1-20 kids who achieved higher results in scientific examinations than their counterparts in big courses, which accords with Sitkei’s findings, is important for student achievement. According to Silver, as described by Bolton (1988), there was no significant difference in post-test achievement results between large and small class control groups; he concluded that bigger is sometimes better. Previously, Keeves (1978) claimed that school type had no bearing on academic success; however, Carpenter and Western (1984) discovered that school type does have an impact on students’ academic achievement. Hatis, citing Smith as a corollary to the preceding statement, found through meta-analyses that small classes result in higher pupil achievement, more favorable teacher effects (e.g. morale, attitude toward students), greater attempts in individualized instruction, a better classroom climate, and more favorable student effects when compared to larger classes (e.g self concept,participation). In another development, Finn and Achilles (1990) found that pupils in tiny classrooms outperform their counterparts in regular-sized kindergarten classes in a longitudinal examination of a subset of their large-scale experiment (described Kindergarten and instructors) (regular class size here means large classes). According to a research done in the United States, kids from large schools were exposed to a great variety of school activities, and the best among them attained levels that were unmatched by students in small schools, according to Campbell (1980). He did notice, however, that kids at small schools were more involved in extracurricular activities (both academics and extra- curricular activities). The study found that students in small schools were consistently more versatile and performed better. Campbell’s claim is perplexing since he is unable to identify which is more dependable. Ornstein (1990) revealed that in a 10-year examination of high schools in Illinois, schools with less than 495 pupils had the lowest achievement on three distinct standard assessments. Schools with 495 to 1,280 pupils, on the other hand, had the best success. In Ekiti State, the scenario was slightly different, with schools with fewer pupils achieving higher scores than schools with a bigger student population (Owoeye, 1991). Factors including socioeconomic position and geographic location were taken into account, but they were ruled out as potential causes. George (1958) observed in his research on high school class rank and academic performance that graduates from high school appear to do better academically in college when their high school has a big graduating class.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The difficulty that this study aims to solve is that providing a chance for debate or any other type of spoken feedback to the written output is difficult… and; the amount of marking required can deter even the most zealous teacher from assigning the amount of work that they believe will help the students (George, 1958).

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of class size on junior secondary school students’ academic achievement in Ore, Ondo State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following pertinent questions will be extremely beneficial to this research project in the sense that they will shed light on the study issue.

These are the inquiries:

  1. What are the effects of small class sizes on J.S.S pupils’ academic achievement?
  2. What are the advantages of a bigger class size for J.S.S pupils in terms of academic achievement?
  3. What causes J.S.S students to exhibit more respect for one another’s academic achievements?
  4. What effect does class size have on student interaction and J.S.S students’ academic achievement?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study’s findings would be useful in the following ways:

  1. Smaller classrooms allow for more teacher-student interaction.
  2. Students in smaller classes exhibit greater respect for one another and a greater desire to engage in class activities.
  3. There are more learning activities in smaller courses.
  4. Smaller courses encourage students to engage more, allowing them to better understand one another and increase their willingness to help one another.
  5. Smaller courses allow for quicker identification and resolution of any disciplinary issues.
  6. Smaller classrooms lead to increased teacher satisfaction and less stress.
  7. The ultimate benefits of class-size reduction include lower retention, fewer referrals to special education, and fewer dropouts.

1.6 Scope of the Study

The research was conducted at a few junior secondary schools in Ore, Ondo State.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Class Size:

Class size is commonly described as the number of students for whom a teacher is primarily accountable.

Academic Accomplishment:

Academic achievement, often known as (academic) performance, refers to the degree to which a student, instructor, or institution has met their educational objectives.

Impact Of Class Size On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance

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Impact Of Class Size On Junior Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance


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