The Influence Of Movies On The Academic Performance Of Students

Project and Seminar Material for Education

The Influence Of Movies On The Academic Performance Of Students


Abstract


The study investigated the influence of movies on academic achievement of children in upper Basic Education Level in Lagos State. The study established the influence of televisions viewing on the pupils’ language development and achievement in basic science. The study also determines the influence of televisions viewing on pupils’ numeracy development and achievement in social studies. The study was guided by four research questions and four formulated null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of probability. The design of the study was an ex-post facto survey design. The area of the study was Lagos State of Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of all the children in the upper basic level of education in schools in Lagos State. Multistage and stratified random sampling techniques were used in selecting the 320 pupils that were used for the study. A researcher-developed instrument called ‘pupils television viewing identification questionnaire’ (PTVIQ). The instrument was face validated by three experts in the department of vocational Teacher education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The internal consistency reliability coefficient obtained using Cronbach alpha method was 0.67. Data were collected by recording the continuous assessment scores of pupils on Mathematics, English languages, Basic Science and Social Studies. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while t-test analysis was used in testing the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study included: that home television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers on Basic English continuous assessment tests; the home television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers on basic Mathematics; at p<0.05, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of home television viewers and non-television viewers on Social Studies tests. It was recommended that the viewing of television in homes and schools especially on academic activities should be encouraged by parents and teachers to enhance pupils learning.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

In recent times, movies has remained an instrument of entertainment, information and education and it has overtaken more than half of other existing entertainment forms, which equally compete for time and attention of the average citizen. Since the early 20th century, the American film industry dominated the cinema across the world. In early 1910, Griffith a renowned film director shot the ever first movie in Hollywood titled “In old California”. Before World War I, filmmakers gravitated to Southern California as the first Hollywood studio was opened in 1911 by the Nestor Company. The film making industry was later dominated by the Jews who were immigrants as racial prejudice prevented them from industries.

By the mid 1940’s, the film market was making 400 movies a year. Onokome (2009) noted that the Nigeria video film has transformed itself into an art, creating its own version of the Nollywood. The motion picture business grew from an estimated turnover of about 2.5 million in 1994 to a 3.4 million in 1999. Larkin (2006) noted that this development resulted in the production of over 600 films a year and this made Nigeria one of the largest filmproducing nations in the world. Okoye (2003) observed that Ken Mnebue a resourceful Nigerian entrepreneur pioneered the Nigerian movies by producing “Living in Bondage” in 1992.

However, Nollywood is arguably the third most vibrant film industry in the world after Hollywood and Bollywood. Movies came into Nigeria through the colonial masters in 1930. According to Adieza (2010), these films were sponsored by Herbert Macaulay and was shown at the Glover Hall in Lagos. Film at this period was essentially meant to stimulate interest on the British Empire. In 1960 shortly after the independence, the first genre of Indigenous film produced was “Culture in Transition” an abridged version of Wole Soyinka’s “The Strong Breed”. “Kongi’s Harvest” also heralded the Independence anniversary. Films during this period were shown in large cinema halls which often attracted large crowd, the film hall eventually became a rendezvous for criminals. The cost of showing film through these projectors was high, so in 1980 when movies came into the country, it was embraced by all homes. Producers now shifted to the production of movies which were cheaper and faster. Sor (2011) noted that by 1996, over 20,000 movies were recorded in the film market.

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) and the National Examination Council (NECO) (2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010) frequently complains on the low quality of education in Nigeria educational system and the resultant effect of poor academic performance among senior secondary school students. Some blame the pupils for this apparent decline in quality of education and moral values, majority blames the teachers for the woes in our schools, while the teachers shifted the blame on the children and parental attitudes to their children education (Arony & Ogbadu, 2010).

Others scholars such Jekayinfa (2007) blamed the government for unattractive condition of service and poor physical facilities in some parts of the system. Nevertheless, it is essential to note that apart from the factors listed as the causes of failure among the secondary school students, the advent of globalization as a result of urbanization and civilization such as access to internet, GSM, Television and Cable Network programs have relegated most students to a mere showbiz and often distracted by series of cartoons and movie activities. They spend most of their time in front of their television sets rather than in reading their books, doing their home-works and mingling with other people etc.

Teenage age is a point at which children are just starting to seriously break dependence on their parents, at least as far as their own identity is concerned. The media gives them a more neutral and less threatening frame of reference from which to relate to their peers (Ohadebeh 2012). This is because the media is something that most teenagers see the same way. Unfortunately, because most teens are still looking for their own identities, they are a lot more susceptible to suggestion and all the perceived peer pressure from the media which can overwhelm what they have already formed of their own identities based on someone else’s opinions, what they should think and feel. Without realizing it, they can start picking up someone else’s opinions instead of forming their own with the way the media is today (Okechukwu, 2014).

However, it cannot be over-emphasized that television has taken a centre stage in our daily activities especially in the 21st Century with the emergence and consolidation of different television stations and service providers in Nigeria. It has been observed in cities that satellite and cable televisions have a greater amount of audience than the local television stations. However, this study examines the effect of late-night television viewing among students in secondary school. It is evident through previous researches that with television stations at their fingertips, teenagers spend a whole lot of their time watching television. A conservative estimate has been given of an average American teenager who spends 2.5 hours per day watching television.

The teenagers spend an average of 16 – 18 hours watching television per week, starting from 13 – 19 years old, watching most often the most popular rated movies as evidenced from previous research outputs teenagers. It has been discovered that most of the programs teenagers watch are entertainment related, for instance, movies, musical videos, soap operas etc. Olorogun (2013), asserts that the influence of these programs on teenagers may not be immediate or effective due to some other variables like family, social groups, peer groups etc. Nevertheless, the influence might lead the teenagers to false ideal and negative social behaviors. However, the more they expose themselves to entertainment television with reference to the amount of time some of them put into watching entertainment programs, the greater the chance for them to develop a world view and a perception of reality similar to what they watch over time on television.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Movies could be said to have both negative and positive influence on the Nigerian child depending on the type of film, the time, and the level of control parents are able to adopt. It is however clear that a child imitates what he sees hence he must be guided. Onokome (2009) stated that violence is one of the effects of movies. Children who watch a lot of violent films are prone to violent acts. There is the belief that people often accept the fictional representation in the media for their vivid and demonstrative relay of pictures. The Home-video is popularly considered by many people as a school of violence as it has the ability to hold its audience better than any conventional school.

There are the long-term and short-term effects of movies especially as it affects the behavior of the child. Traits such as hostility may be the effect of watching films with violent content. This can stimulate aggressive thoughts and feelings. Adesanya (2008) believes that viewing violent program can alter children’s behavior such as making the child afraid, worried and suspicious or increasing the child’s tendency for aggressive behavior. Pornographic films have untold negative effects on the child as it escalates his sexual urge and he tends to venture into experimentation.

The most dangerous is the fact that movies takes children’s time as noted by Adesanya (2004), thereby depriving them of maximum concentration on their school work such as revision of notes, assignments and even domestic chores. They prefer to remain glued to the screen rather than participate actively in home chores. In most Nigerian homes, the best form of entertainment is watching films. Most movies have a time duration of one hour, thirty minutes and some two hours, so there is a high risk of obesity. The problem of this study manifest from the behavior of school age children.

The assumption is that many school children have positive desire for watching films rather than concentrating on their school work. This positive desire occurs in the form of spending more time watching films and less time in school work which may result in absenteeism and lateness to school. Another problem could be found in the behaviour of these children who have been exposed to watching movies without much control. They learn new form of speech pattern, dressing and immoral acts. It is therefore the aim of this study to investigate the influence of home movies on the academic performance of secondary school students in Oshodi-isolo local government area of Lagos state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of movies on the academic performance of students.

Specifically, the objectives of this study is

  1. To examine the level of student addictiveness to home movie and the influence on their academic performance.
  2. To determine the genre of movie that the students are more exposed to and the influence on their academic performance.
  3. To find out the influence movies has on the academic performance of students.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the researcher during the course of the research:

  1. To what extent would student addictiveness to movies influence their academic performance?
  2. Does the genre of movie that the students are more exposed to influence their academic performance?
  3. What influence does movies has on the academic performance of students in general?
  4. Does watching of movies influence the behavior of the child?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

  1. Ho: Watching of movies does not significantly influence the academic performance of children.
    H1: Watching of movies significantly influence the academic performance of children.
  2. Ho: Watching of movies do not significantly influence the behavior of children.
    H1: Watching of movies significantly influence the behavior of children.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is significant to the teachers, parents and students. This study will help the teachers of the school to know the influence that movies has on their students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the possible influence it has on them. The study is of significant to parents in the sense that they will know the possible effects these movies has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dog to their children.

The study will enable the students of the senior level so that they will be aware that, apart from the social benefits of this movies site, using the sites more than necessary will pose possible dangers to their health. It will be relevant in assisting students in understanding the diversity of movies. It will provide relevance material for students and other researchers undertaking similar research. The study will help researchers with more information on the Influence of movies on student’s academic performance.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The focus of this research work is to primarily study the Influence of movies on the academic performance of students. The study will comprise of students in Lagos State, Oshodi/Isolo local government area to be precise.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

This chapter presented the discussions of findings, conclusions of the study, implications of the findings, recommendations, and summary of the study.


5.1 Discussions of Findings of the Study

The discussions of the findings of the study were done according to research questions and hypotheses that guided the study as follows;

Research Question One

What is the influence of television viewing on achievement of pupils in Basic English in upper Basic Education Level?

The results of Table 1 indicated that the achievement scores of pupils on Basic English test was different between those pupils that viewed television and those that do not view television. The group that viewed television had a mean achievement score of 83.41 while those that did not view television had a mean score of 64.81. This means that those who are television viewers scored higher than the group that did not view television. The standard deviation scores by both group showed that there was little variations in the mean scores of both group.

The t-test analysis carried out to determine the mean difference between the mean achievement scores of television viewers and non-television viewers showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores obtained by both groups. In other words, the null hypothesis of no significant difference was rejected. This implied that those pupils that viewed television achieved higher than their counterparts that are non-television viewers. This finding is in agreement with the earlier finding by Valkenburg (2004) who found that Television viewing make children to be faster in learning vocabulary and general knowledge of their environment. According to Valkenburg, television viewing motivates the children to learn, as exposed them to incidental learning for longer time than they would if there was no television. Also, according to Gbadebe (2007), television viewing help to make up for children’s lack of motivation. In similar studies, Cross (2004), and Lemish (2007) found that young children’s language acquisition are enhanced through television viewing at homes and in schools. Other studies whose findings were supported by the present study included those of Ngwoke (2002), and Wright and John (2001) among others. In their respective studies, they established a positive relationship between children’s television viewing and their academic achievement in vocabulary building at age 2 and above. According to Ngwoke (2002) children who watched television frequently when they were two and three years old performed better on the language tests than those who were not frequent viewers. Based on these findings one may explain that television programmes provide children with opportunities to learn vocabulary and language expressions that enable them to achieve very high in Basic English Language at the upper basic school level.

Research Question Two

What is the influence of television viewing on the achievement of children in Basic Mathematics at the upper Basic School level in Lagos State?

The finding of the study was that the television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers in the Basic Mathematics tests at the Upper Basic School Level. The standard deviation also showed that there were small variations in the mean scores of the pupils in each group. The result further showed that there was a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of television viewers and non-viewers on Basic Mathematics tests at 0.05 level of significance in favour of the television viewers. This present finding agrees with the earlier finding by Anna (2005) and Davies (1997). According to Anna’s finding, children’s ability in quantitative reasoning was to a great extent enhanced when exposed to television programmes that involved quantitative reasoning. In other words, television viewing promoted children’s mathematics solving ability. In the same live, Davis (1997) found out that televisual literacy improved the calculative ability of children in schools. Davies also argued that children should be exposed to television programmes that involved signs and symbols as represented in mathematics’ classrooms. Television viewing by this finding helped in improving children’s numeracy skills in upper Basic Schools in Lagos State of Nigeria. In support of the present findings, the National Academic (2006) also reported that television programme have educational value and helped children in their school work, particularly those activities that involved numeracy.

Research Question Three

What is the influence of television viewing on children’s achievement in Basic science in upper basic school level in Lagos State?

The finding was that there was a difference between the mean achievement scores of children who watched television and those that did not watch television on Basic Science Continuous Assessments Scores. At p<0.05 there was significant difference between the mean achievement scores of television viewers and non television viewers in basic science continuous assessment tests. The present finding buttress the finding by Betts (1994) who reported that thousands of video discs put thousands of images, science symbols, science processes at a child’s finger and help the children understand concepts within their environment. Also, Otokhine (2002) explained that the use of technology like television increases children knowledge of science concepts and improve their process skills. Otokhine further explained that children who watched television were more disposed to understanding science and technology than their non-digital parents and colleagues. These findings could be explained by the fact that television facilitates the learning process and help the student to catch up with reading assignments and going through science and mathematical drills, thereby widening their knowledge and range of science learning. Televisions stimulate children’s imagination and creativity and thereby make them to be innovative using available materials in their environment for artistic and self expression especially in sciences. This may have accounted for the significant difference between the mean achievement scores of children in basic science when exposed to television viewing and when not exposed to television viewing at the upper basic level schools in Lagos State.

Research Question Four

What is the influence of television viewing on pupils achievement in social studies at upper basic school level in Lagos State?

The result of the finding showed that television viewers scored higher than the non-television viewers in social studies continuous assessment tests taken by pupils in upper basic school level in Lagos State. The difference was 18.60 in favour of the television viewers. Also, at p<0.05, there was a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of television viewers and non-television viewers on social studies continuous assessment test scores in favour of the television viewers. The present finding corroborated the earlier finding on the influence of television watching on children’s learning capacity, particularly in learning about the social environment. For instance, Greenfield and Yan (2006) reported that television viewing broadens the child’s social knowledge and thus equip the child better for social knowledge and skills. Also, Santrock (2005) stated that the imagery and perverseness of television have exposed children to hundreds of different neighborhoods, culture, clothing fashions, career possibilities and patterns of intimate relationships. It encouraged new interests and made the child more willing to learn certain school subjects. The finding of the study may therefore be explained in terms of the information available in the television programmes being watched by the children. That, may have enhanced their performance in social studies continuous assessment tests as recorded by the
study.


5.2 Conclusion of the Study

From the findings and discussions of the finding of this study, the following conclusions were reached. It was shown that television viewing has positive influence on children’s achievement in many areas of school learning including Basic English Language, Basic Mathematics, Basic Science and Social Studies at the upper Basic School Level in Lagos State. By this findings, television as a mode of teaching and learning has proved to have high potential for teaching and learning school subjects at the upper basic school level.


5.3 Recommendation

Following from the discussions, conclusions and implications of the study, these recommendations were made:

  1. The use of television should be employed in teaching and learning of Basic
    English language, Basic Mathematics, Basic Science and Social Studies in Basic Education Levels in Lagos State of Nigeria. This is because the positive influence of television viewing on the academic achievement of children in schools has been demonstrated by the findings of the study.
  2. Parents/Guardians should encourage children apple opportunity to view educative television programmes at home. This will help to enhance their learning of subjects at school as shown in this study.
  3. School administrators should provide televisions in the schools for use by teachers in showing selected television programmes to pupils.
  4. School authorities should encourage teachers to keep accurate records of continuous assessment tests of pupils. Such records are useful when tracking pupil’s records in school.

Suggestions for Further Studies

Several suggestions for further studies can be ascertained from the results of this study. As noted earlier, one of the limitations of the study was the uncooperative attitude of some teachers in releasing the continuous assessment records of children to the researcher. In order to overcome such attitudes, future researchers should obtain the continuous assessment records of children from the head teacher’s office where such records are kept. An official request letter should be sent to the school head teacher prior to the commencement of the study.

Classification problem was another limitation of the study, where it was not very clear on how to identify television viewers and the non-viewers. It is thereby suggested that records or information on television viewing by pupils should be obtained from the parents or guardians. This will provide a more accurate data for the classification of children into television viewers and nonviewers.

Further, it is suggested that future research should be carried out using larger number of respondents to increase the generality of the findings.


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Frequently Asked Questions


Does watching movies improve English language learning in ESL students?

The results display the educational impacts of watching English movies to improve their language learning. The purpose of the research is to investigate the impact of watching movies as a pedagogical tool on learning English Language by the students of English department and its academic achievements on ESL students.

Why do students like watching movies?

In addition, movies provide a great chance to students to gain background understanding, to combine with their own understanding of a story or concept.

Why subtitled movies in the language classroom?

Using subtitled movies in the language classroom make students interact with the movies. When ESL learners watching a subtitled movie, except watching and listening to the audiovisual materials, they are also understand and interact with the movie, and they make a translation, between the source language and target language.

How do movies affect second language learning?

This is based on the fact that movies give exposures to “real language,” used in authentic settings and in the cultural context which the second language is spoken. They also have recognized that movies attract the learner, and it can positively affect their motivation to learn (Xhemaili, 2013). 

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