Examination Of Single Parenthood On Emotional Stability And Academic Performance

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Examination Of Single Parenthood On Emotional Stability And Academic Performance


Abstract


This study was carried out to investigate the effect of single parenthood on emotional stability and academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State as a case study. The study was set to find out the prevalence of single parenting in Nigeria, identify factors that are responsible for the phenomena of single parenting, determine whether single parenthood has an effects on the emotional stability of students, find out ways single parenting can possibly affect children emotionally and determine whether single parenthood has an effects on the academic performance of students. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students of the some selected secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the factors that are responsible for the phenomena of single parenting includes: Divorce, Break-up, Abandonment, Domestic violence, Rape. The result of the findings reveals that single parenting affect the academic performance of children. Therefore, it is recommended that parents should consider the future of their children as the first priority, stay together and providing psycho-social and economic support to enhance the academic performance of their children. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education has been described as the best legacy that any nation or individual could leave behind for generation yet to unborn. It is the bedrock of civilization and a valuable asset in any nation. It have been used from time immemorial as a veritable instrument of cultural transmission. A lot of factors has marred the desire and pursuit of education and development in the country; inadequate infrastructure, poor government involvement, high cost of education, etc have hampered educational development in Nigeria. Beside these, there are some social problems which have also continued to cripple the quest for education in Nigeria. Over the years in the educational sector, various research studies have been conducted to proffer solution to these intractable educational problems in our society.

In all, parental role have also been identified as an eminent social force influencing a child’s education. According to Adeyemo (1994), the home is the first station from where the child enters the world, hence its influence is very critical to the development of the child. And because of the very prominent position parents occupy in the home, they have enormous responsibilities regarding the upbringing of their child especially in the education of the child. It is rather unfortunate that parents are often unmindful of the very strategic role they are supposed to play bin the educational development of the children. In essence, they should not allow minor differences and other inexcusable issue to come between them to the detriment of their children.

Loye (1976) traced the emotional development of a child to his or her home environment. He asserted that the emotional development of a child is strongly affected by two kinds of relationship namely, the parent child relationship and the parent-parent relationship. Drinkmeger and mckay (1989) made the submission for four basic ingredients of positive child relationship, and they consist of Mutual Respect which influence effective parent to avoid nagging, debating or talking down on their children. Effective parents take out time to have pleasant moments with their children and shower them with time. It is important that parents communicate love through words and actions in homes. Children should be encouraged to believe in themselves. In an authoritarian household, the children’s, sense of worth comes from getting rewards and avoiding punishment from parents. The relationship between parents and their children is beyond paying their school fees and providing them with school materials but a show of love from parents to children. This is essential for a healthy, mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual development of single or complete parents.

Davis (1978) advised teachers to learn to discover the reference point that is, the home environment from which the children departed. He further said that unless the teacher discovers these reference points of his or her student, he or she may cause great deal of damage. With reference to the submission that a child’s intellectual capacity started from home, the study therefore tends to look at the effect of single parents on children academic performance.
A single parent is a parent not living with a spouse. The single parent has most of the day to responsibilities in raising the child or children. This herculean task cannot be accomplished by an individual. Mgbiti Ossat (2011) corroborated thus, single parenthood is the practice of raising children or building family without a spouse or partner. As a form of building a family, single parenthood (single parenting) is now permissible in our society. In the western society in general, the child ends up with the primary caregiver usually the mother or the father when there is separation. Some sociologists perceive the prevalence of single parenting as an alternative family form, rather than as a problem in the society.

Regardless of how it is perceived, the increase of families raised by one parent influences the social, economic and political context of family life. In Nigeria, the existence of single parent was formerly unknown and where they existed, they were ignored as exceptional cases. However, in modern times, has become a fast growing family pattern both in and outside Nigeria Nwachukwu (1998). Although there are no available statistic of single parent families in Nigeria, practical experience and newspaper reports show that there is a growing increase in the percentage of adults and children living in single parent household. Historically, the death of a partner was a major cause of single parenting and other causes include separation, divorce of a married couple, divorce of children that were in cohabitation, early pregnancy, etc. However, children with single parents are three times more likely to drop out of school than children from two parent families. The demographic of single parenting shows a general increase worldwide in children living in single parent homes. A child from a home where the father and mother are present will be taken care of and will socialize in the best way possible. This is due to the fact that the process of socialization depends on both parents playing complementary role in the upbringing of the child, such a child is likely to achieve self actualization later in life, unlike children from single parent home who are likely to suffer deprivation and denial of some right and opportunities.

Amato (2003) asserted that single parenthood is problematic for the children’s socialization because many with one receive less economic and social support with practical assistance, less information, guidance and supervision, less role modeling than children in two parent families. Among children in single parent families, those from mother absent homes and mother absent household earn lower grades than children from father absent households. Children from father absent households generally find it difficult to connect with school activities both academically and morally (Murkey, 2004).


1.2 Statement of Problem

Generally speaking two good head are better than one. The role both parents play in the upbringing of a child is very important for the academic success of the child. Many male and female children in schools are portraying habits which seem not to be in accordance with the school rules and regulation such as lying, fighting, stealing, male and female pupils given to amorous disposition, and unhealthy peer group influence, poor study culture, lack of concentration in class, and late submission of assignments to have negative effect on academic performance of pupils. This prompted the researcher to investigate the effect of single parenthood on emotional stability and academic performance


1.3 Purpose of the Research

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of single parenthood on emotional stability and academic performance.

Specifically, the objectives of this study will be;

  1. To find out the prevalence of single parenting in Nigeria.
  2. To identify factors that are responsible for the phenomena of single parenting.
  3. To determine whether single parenthood has an effects on the emotional stability of students.
  4. To find out ways single parenting can possibly affect children emotionally.
  5. To determine whether single parenthood has an effects on the academic performance of students.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research question will guide the study.

  1. What is the prevalence of single parenting in Nigeria?
  2. What are the factors that are responsible for the phenomena of single parenting?
  3. Does single parenting affect the emotional stability of children?
  4. What are the ways single parenting can possibly affect children emotionally?
  5. Does single parenting affect the academic performance of children?

1.5 Statement of the Hypothesis

  • Ho: Single parenting has no significant effect on the emotional stability of children.
  • Ho: Single parenting has a significant effect on the academic performance of children.

1.6 Significance of the Study

As widely described, a child plays an important role in the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and ideal. Unfortunately, the pattern of homes lately had been distorted for one reason or another. Thereby, affecting the academic performance of a child’s upbringing in and out-of-school. The findings anticipated in this study shall therefore assist all stakeholders (parents, students, curriculum planners, policy makers and the government to mention but a few on roles expected of them.

First, it would empower single parents and others alike to have a renewed orientation and be equipped with the necessary information to have an indivisible family. As it will help parents to build a better future for their wards and the society at large.

Secondly, the study outcome would help primary school teachers and other teachers as well, to acknowledge the importance of a stable home as a major pillar for academic success in the life of any student.

Thirdly, as curriculum planners needed to be guided with factors that could assist the curriculum planning and implementation to be successful. This study would therefore afford planners to consider learners’ family stability as a primary determinant of academic breakthrough. Also, the outcome of this study would not exempt students in the scheme of importance it would benefit them. It would enable students to understand even though over a long period of time, that crisis is eminent everywhere they find themselves but should rather allow their conscious to guide their daily conduct and strive to achieve hard work.

Finally, the school counselors would be better equipped with the necessary tool to guide and counsel pupils from single parent homes. Ensuring that the pupils turn to becomes good citizens of the country.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study will ascertain the extent to which single parenting influences academic performance of student.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Single Parenthood:

Is a phenomenon whereby the care and training of a child is undertaken by only one of father or mother as a result of death of spouse, divorce, separation, and never-married (Klaush and Own, 2009)

Pupils:

These are boys and girls who learn in the primary school.

Performance:

This is the extent of achievement of an individual in his or her place of study.

Emotional Stability:

Enables the person to develop an integrated and balanced way of perceiving the problems of life.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study consisted of five chapters. Chapter one comprised background of the study and a general introduction to the work. It included statement of problem of the study, highlighted the objectives of the study, the scope within which the research was conducted is also highlighted. An outline of how the work is organized is also detailed in the chapter one. The chapter two of the study comprised of the literature review. The chapter three comprises of the research methodology. Chapter four comprises of analysis and the chapter five deals with the summary of the major findings, recommendations and conclusion to the study.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the examination of single parenthood on emotional stability and academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the examination of single parenthood on emotional stability and academic performance using some selected secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out the prevalence of single parenting in Nigeria, identify factors that are responsible for the phenomena of single parenting, determine whether single parenthood has an effects on the emotional stability of students, find out ways single parenting can possibly affect children emotionally and determine whether single parenthood has an effects on the academic performance of students.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are students of the some selected secondary schools in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.

  1. The prevalence of single parenting in Nigeria is high.
  2. The factors that are responsible for the phenomena of single parenting includes: Divorce, Break-up, Abandonment, Domestic violence, Rape.
  3. Single parenting affect the emotional stability of children.
  4. The ways single parenting can possibly affect children emotionally includes: it can lead to boredom, it can cause low self-esteem, it can lead to aggression, it can lead to loss of focus and it can lead to depression.
  5. Single parenting affect the academic performance of children.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The Ministry of Family and social welfare should organize seminars to teach couples the importance and the requirements of the family to the education of their children. Parents should be advised to stay together and provide all necessary school needs for their children and get more involved in their school activities.
  2. Schools at all levels should have a strong guidance and counseling unit to help all the children with family problems and also create a link between the home and the school.
  3. The Ministry of Secondary Education and Vocational Training in collaboration with Religious organizations should work together and develop training programs on love, marriage and care for parents in order to educate the society on the importance of love and family care for healthy families, communities and society in general.
  4. Parents should consider the future of their children as the first priority, stay together and providing psycho-social and economic support to enhance the academic performance of their children.

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