Power Failure And Its Effects On Appliances

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Power Failure And Its Effects On Appliances


Abstract


Electric power supply is the most important commodity for national development. With electrical energy the people are empowered to work from the domestic level and the cottage industries, through the small-scale and medium industries to employment in the large-scale manufacturing complexes. In these days, depriving people of electric power is tantamount to castration. Power failure is a period of time when the electricity supply to a particular building or area is interrupted, for example because of damage to the cables or any other reason. Modern equipment requires a continuous supply of electricity. Not only industry, but also in the household. Take the case of a refrigerator. If you experience a power off situation, your food will be spoilt. This work in particular discuses power failure and its effect on appliances.


Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

In modern society, it is impossible to imagine life without electricity. Modern equipment requires a continuous supply of electricity. Not only industry, but also in the household. Take the case of an ordinary refrigerator. If you experience a power off situation, your food will be spoilt. But much more important, what if the power failure “spoils” your business. For example, uninterrupted power supply is needed for your server, which manages your accounting programme or provides uninterrupted operation of your website.

Of course, in most critical applications, uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are used, but this is not always the case. Also, these devices cannot provide continuous operation in the event of remote power off. Often you need to take other action according to the situation. But how do you know that the remote site has experienced a power off condition?

Power failure may be caused by various factors: an overload on the power plant, a thunderstorm, cable breakage during excavations.


1.2 Objective/Aim Of The Study

The main objective of this work is to discuses on power failure in Nigeria and its effect on our appliances. At the end of this work, student will be able to understand:

  1. Power failure,
  2. Causes of power failure,
  3. The effects on our appliances and
  4. How to prevent power failure from damaging our appliances.

1.3 Significance Of The Study

As a student of electrical engineering, this seminar has exposed my knowledge about power failure, its causes, the effects on our appliances and how to prevent it from damaging our appliances.


1.4 Application Of The Study

Everyone experiences power failure and we all bear the negative effect on our appliances. This work is written to be applied in everyone daily life.


1.5 Types Of Power Failure

Power outages are categorized into three different phenomena, relating to the duration and effect of the outage:

A transient fault is a momentary (a few seconds) loss of power typically caused by a temporary fault on a power line. Power is automatically restored once the fault is cleared.

A brownout or sag is a drop in voltage in an electrical power supply. The term brownout comes from the dimming experienced by lighting when the voltage sags. Brownouts can cause poor performance of equipment or even incorrect operation.

A blackout refers to the total loss of power to an area and is the most severe form of power outage that can occur. Blackouts which result from or result in power stations tripping are particularly difficult to recover from quickly. Outages may last from a few minutes to a few weeks depending on the nature of the blackout and the configuration of the electrical network.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

Electric power is critical to society and business alike. Weather is responsible for the majority of major power outages that occur, but as evidenced above there’s a lot more than just weather that should be accounted for when designing an electrical system. For any critical systems, be it emergency or business related, you should always get the assistance of a certified electrician. And for the best possible protection, always install a power generator as a way to ensure multiple levels of backup are in place.


5.2 Conclusion

The various causes and effects of power outages in the Nigeria transmission network have been examined in this study. Outages in the network are due to aging of equipment/defects, lightning, vandalisation, poor maintenance, etc. The fault analysis showed that the system needs to be properly protected to ensure safety and security of network. And the best way to protect our appliances’ from the damage caused by power failure is by having power failure signal device which alerts the user that there is power failure, in other for him to switch OFF all high current sensitive devices.


5.3 Recommendation

This project is designed to be used in homes and industries and wherever the need for an indication of power failure is needed. And should be used and maintain by a qualified personnel.

In order to reduce transmission outages in the Nigerian transmission network, the following should be given due consideration:

  1. A proper study should be carried out to identify all weak areas in the network with a view to strengthen the network
  2. Planned and routine maintenance should be carried out on the network to reduce the incident of collapsed spans
  3. Very long and fragile lines should be re-enforced to improve the voltage stability and efficiency in the network
  4. Additional circuits and loops should be introduced into the network to reduce the single line contingency constraints associated with most parts of the network
  5. Good protection system taking into consideration the short circuit current in the network should be put in place to assist in fault isolation and protection of the network
  6. More substations should be introduced into the network to assist in the reduction of long lines and improve the voltage profiles of the network
  7. Vigilant groups to be introduced to guide against vandalisation which constitute a major setback in the network
  8. Faults should be promptly rectified and all the lines should be energized to reduce the incidence of vandalisation
  9. Proper clearing should be carried out for transmission lines that have be over grown by trees and weeds to reduce the effect of constant tripping of the lines

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