Design And Construction Of A 5KVA Solar Power Inverter

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Design And Construction Of A 5KVA Solar Power Inverter


Abstract


This work is on solar inverter converts direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical balance of system (BOS)–component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary AC-powered equipment. Solar power inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Project
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Aim and Objective of the Project
  • 1.4 Scope of the Project
  • 1.5 Purpose of the Project
  • 1.6 Significance of the Project
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Project
  • 1.8 Motivation
  • 1.9 Research Methodology
  • 1.10 Project Organisation

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Review of Related Studies
  • 2.3 Overview of the Study
  • 2.4 Overview of Solar Energy
  • 2.5 Maximum Angle of Inclination
  • 2.6 Solar Panel
  • 2.7 Review of Different Photovoltaic Mounting System

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Block Diagram
  • 3.3 Description of Solar Inverter Units
  • 3.4 System Circuit Diagram
  • 3.5 Circuit Operation and Description
  • 3.6 Description of Components Used
  • 3.7 How to Choose a Right Inverter and Battery

Chapter Four

Result Analysis

  • 4.1 Implementation
  • 4.2 Testing of System Operation
  • 4.3 Testing of Solar Panels
  • 4.4 Solar Panel Maintenance

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Solar inverter converts direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current (AC) that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. Solar power inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection

The solar inverter is a vital component in a solar energy system. It performs the conversion of the variable DC output of the Photovoltaic (PV) module(s) into a clean sinusoidal 50 or 60 Hz AC current that is then applied directly to the commercial electrical grid or to a local, off-grid electrical network. A solar cell (also called photovoltaic cell) is the smallest solid-state device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity through the photovoltaic effect. A Photovoltaic (PV) module is an assembly of cells in series or parallel to increase voltage and/or current. A Panel is an assembly of modules on a structure. An Array is an assembly of panels at a site.

Typically, communication support scheme is included so users can monitor the inverter and report on power and operating conditions, provide firmware updates and control the inverter grid connection.

At the heart of the inverter is a real-time microcontroller. The controller executes the very precise algorithms required to invert the DC voltage generated by the solar module into AC. This controller is programmed to perform the control loops necessary for all the power management functions necessary including DC/DC and DC/AC. The controller also maximizes the power output from the PV through complex algorithms called maximum power point tracking (MPPT). The PV maximum output power is dependent on the operating conditions and varies from moment to moment due to temperature, shading, cloud cover, and time of day so adjusting for this maximum power point is a continuous process. For systems with battery energy storage, the two controller can control the charging as well as switch over to battery power once the sun sets or cloud cover reduces the PV output power.


1.2 Problem Statement

If there is one factor that has perpetually maintained the status of Nigeria as a less developed country, it is its electricity sector. Till date, many households and industrial businesses cannot be guaranteed of 24 hours supply of electricity from the National grid. At this stage of Nigeria’s social and economic development, the country cannot deliver sufficient energy to the citizens despite huge financial resources that have been expended in the sector.

Rather, Nigerians have continued to rely on electricity generators for their power supply, fuel marketers are taking significant portion of households, institutions of learning, and businesses incomes to supply power, noise pollution from regular humming generators have become integral part of living for many Nigerians with imaginable consequences on their health. Because of these problems, there is a need to design and construct the solar panel inverter which is an off grid inverter to overcome power supply challenge in the society, reduce cost of energy consumed and eliminate noise/environmental pollution that is associated with running of generator.


1.3 Aim and Objective of the Project

The main aim of this project is to design and construct a solar power generating device that can collect an input dc voltage from the solar panel and convert it to 220vac output which can be use to power ac appliances.

The objectives are as follows: –

  1. To ensure continuous availability of power supply in the cause of main outage during an execution of an important or urgent assignment. Thereby enabling the department meet up with its office duties even when central power is not available.
  2. To reduce load on the National grid that turn to be reduce the overall energy consumption dependency on the main energy supply in the country
  3. To decrease customer utility bill on energy utilization because of its non-fuel consumption, low price and maintenance cost as compared to the convectional sources of power supplies within International and Local market.
  4. To reduce carbon discharges and subsequently reduce global warming particularly in a period when poor climatic change has become a threat to human survival and life in general to all living creatures hence an ever increasing concern to control it.

1.4 Scope of the Project

The main function of solar inverter is to convert battery’s Direct Current (DC) into Alternative Current (AC) to feed home compliances.

Solar power inverter system is consisted of solar panels, charger controllers, inverters and rechargeable batteries, while solar DC power system is not included inverters.

Basically, solar power source makes it possible to provide a clean reliable and quality supply of alternative electricity free of surges which could be found in the line voltage frequency (50Hz). This project design aims at creating a 5000watts power source which can be utilized as a regular power source for private individuals in the office or at home. This project involves the design and construction of a 5000Watt hybrid Solar PV (photovoltaic) system which involves a solar panel, car battery and an inverter. Furthermore, as a consumer is generating his or her own electricity they also will benefit from a reduction in their electricity bills.


1.5 Purpose of the Project

The purpose of this work is to build a power generating device that is noiseless or carbon free which can be use to overcome the erratic nature of power supply in our country.


1.6 Significance of the Project

The solar inverter is the second most significant (and second most expensive) component of a solar PV system. It’s important because it converts the raw Direct Current (DC) solar power that is produced by the solar panels into Alternating Current (AC) power that comes out of the wall sockets outlet. Inverters also have technology that maximizes the power output of that DC energy.

The use of solar power has many advantages. Firstly, the energy from the sun is free and readily accessible in most parts of the world. Moreover, the sun will keep shining until the world’s end. Also, silicon from which most photovoltaic cells are made is an abundant and nontoxic element (the second most abundant material in the earth’s crust).

Secondly, the whole energy conversion process is environmentally friendly. It produces no noise, harmful emissions or polluting gases. The burning of natural resources for energy can create smoke, cause acid rain and pollute water and air. Carbon dioxide, CO2, a leading greenhouse gas, is also produced in the case of burning fuels. Solar power uses only the power of the sun as its fuel. It creates no harmful by-product and contributes actively to the reduction of global warming.


1.7 Limitation of the Project

As we all know that no human effort to achieve a set of goals goes without difficulties, certain constraints were encountered in the course of carrying out this project and they are as follows:-

i. Difficulty in Information Collection:

I found it too difficult in laying hands of useful information regarding this work and this course me to visit different libraries and internet for solution.

ii. Difficulty in Parts Gathering:

I found it too difficult when gathering electronics parts used for the prototype.

iii. Financial Constraint:

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

iv. Time Constraint:

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work


1.8 Motivation

The world as a whole is on a trajectory towards the exhaustion of fossil fuels. When that unavoidable exhaustion has been accomplished, possibly around the end of this century, whatever electrical energy is consumed by the civilization must be derived from renewable resources, which means that the sophisticated electricity-on-demand to which we have been accustomed, will be lost. Numerous researches have been accomplished in the field of renewable energy. Especially, research regarding renewable energy potential in a geographical location is much needed to promote renewable energy penetration.

For instance, studies such as focusing on Nigeria’s renewable mix, renewable harnessing potential, political aspects are highly needed to drive the decisions towards renewable. Apart from it, due to seasonal variations and intermittency characteristics of renewable energy, accurate predictions of various renewable energy resources are pivotal. Distributed generation systems have been gaining importance and renewable energies are getting a bigger ratio within energy production.

This promoted the usage of renewable energy with supporting various energy configuration and energy storage systems. When considering all the renewable, Solar PV has been considered to be a vital renewable source


1.8 Research Methodology

In the course of carrying this study, numerous sources were used which most of them are by visiting libraries, consulting journal and news papers and online research which Google was the major source that was used.


1.9 Project Organisation

The work is organized as follows: chapter one discuses the introductory part of the work, chapter two presents the literature review of the study, chapter three describes the methods applied, chapter four discusses the results of the work, chapter five summarizes the research outcomes and the recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Solar photovoltaic (PV) installers, also known as PV installers, assemble, install, and maintain solar panel systems on rooftops or other structures.

Solar PV panels convert sunlight to electricity, and PV installers put these systems in place. PV installers use a variety of hand and power tools to install PV panels. They often use drills, wrenches, saws, and screwdrivers to connect panels to frames, wires, and support structures.

Many new PV installers begin by performing basic tasks, such as installing support structures and placing PV panels or PV shingles on top of them. Once the panels are in place, more-experienced installers usually perform more-complex duties, such as connecting electrical components.

Depending on the job and state laws, PV installers may connect the solar panels to the electric grid, although electricians sometimes perform this duty. Once the panels are installed, workers check the electrical systems for proper wiring, polarity, and grounding, and they also perform maintenance as needed.


5.2 Recommendation

Working on this topic as my project is a good idea and it comes at the right time. I am suggesting that this particular topic should also be given to other students both in higher and lower class.

For maximum energy gain, solar panels should be inclined at optimal tilt angle and seasonal adjustment of the panel may lead to considerable gain in power obtained from solar energy.


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