Assessment Of Systems Reliability Performance Of PHCN: A Case Study Of Diobu District (Port Harcourt) Distribution Network
Today’s economic climate requires that every industry aim at achieving maximum production capability while minimizing capital investment. This means finding ways to maximize equipment reliability and up-time as well as extend plant and equipment life.
This project focuses on the assessment of systems reliability performance of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) with Diobu Distribution network (Port Harcourt) as our case study, using daily fault data for three years, viz; 2006, 2007 and 2008. The Poisson distribution and the chi-square were used to determine the appropriateness of the observed data collected.
The chi-square was used to assess the goodness of fit of the Poisson distribution hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The project work estimate the reliability indices of failure rate (), system reliability R(t), failure density function F(t) and system interruption frequency index.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Approval page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Significance of the study
- 1.2 Definition of terms
- 1.2.1 Reliability
- 1.2.2 Failure Rate
- 1.2.3 Mean Time Before Failure
- 1.3 Causes of Failure
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Research Methodology
- 3.1 Sampling Techniques
- 3.2 Sources of Data
- 3.2.1 Primary Sources
- 3.2.2 Secondary Sources
- 3.3 Validation of Instrument
- 3.4 Techniques of Data Analysis
4.0 Data Analysis
- Table 4.1: Monthly Peak Load and Number of Consumers.
- Table 4.2: Summary of Fault Data for 2006
- Table 4.3: Summary of Fault Data for 2007
- Table 4.4: Summary of Fault Data for 2008
- 4.1 Computation of Fault intervals
- 4.2 Computation of Mean
- 4.3 Computation of Variance
- Table 4.5: Values of F(x – x) Obtained for various Months
- 4.4 Computation of Expected Frequency
- 4.5 Computation of Chi-Square
- Table 4.6: Presentation of Fault Intervals, Observed Frequencies, Calculated/Expected frequencies, Mean, Variance and Calculated Chi-Square.
- 4.6 Computation of Reliability Indices in Operating Hours
- 4.6.1 Failure rate for Months in Hours
- 4.6.2 System Reliability of each Month
- 4.6.3 Failure Distribution Function for the System
- 4.6.4 Life Time Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)
- 4.6.5 Life Time Probability Distribution Function (PDF)
- 4.6.6 System Interruption Frequency Index
- Table 4.8: Reliability indices
- 4.7 Discussion/Analysis of Result
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
Distribution networks differ from transmission networks in quite a number of ways, ranging from voltage magnitude to the number of branches and sources. The number of branches and sources is much higher in distribution networks and the voltage magnitude lower. Its general structure of make up is quite different from that of the transmission networks.
A typical distribution system consist of step down transformer e.g. 132/11kv, at a bulk supply point feeding a number of cables. A series of step-down three phase transformers, e.g. 11kv/415v, are spaced in route and from these, the consumers are supplies three phase, four wire networks which give 240 single phase to house and other similar loads.
Also, large scale or industrial consumers could be supplied at 33kv or 11kv.
The objective of power system company is to maintain a continuous and adequate power supply to its consumers at a reasonable rate of return. In Nigeria, this objective is far from being met. Hence, there is the need to focus our attention on reliability as a way of assessing and improving the power system as well as optimizing our investment in the distribution network.
Reliability studies are performed to maximize the reliability, efficiency and safety of an electric power system.
It has been observed that a major part of service interruptions experienced by consumers has its origin in failure from the distribution system (mostly 33kv and below in Nigeria, with radial arrangement), and the distribution system reliability studies have been hindered due to the unavailability of component outage on the distribution system.
Hence, the need to maintain a reliable and effective distribution system using the available equipment on the system is very important and necessary.
1.1 Significance Of The Study
The significance or relevance of this study are as listed below:
- Improve efficiency.
- Increase operating reliability.
- Improve system maintainability.
- Reduce operating cost.
- Evaluate the impact of adding new equipment.
- Optimize system upgrades.
- Identify sources of failures.
1.2 Definition Of Terms
1.2.1 Reliability, R(t):
This can be defined as the capability of an equipment or asset to continue to perform its intended function under specified condition for a stated period of time. It is normally measured as the mean time between failures (MTBF) for each system. Dunn, 2002).
1.2.2 Failure Rate:
This is the number of faults or failures per unit time. The symbol is .
1.2.3 Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF):
This is the mean value of the length of time that elapses between failures.
1.3 Causes Of Faults
The causes of faults include the following:
- Lightning strike
- Heavy wind
- Trees falling across wires
- Failure of insulators
- Vehicle collision with electric poles
- Illegal connections/operation by consumers
5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation
The reliability index for the three years under review showed that the distribution system network is fairly reliable. The variation in the reliability of the system between various months could be due to the following:
- Poor maintenance practices.
- Slow response time occasioned by poor funding and inadequate competent manpower.
- Aged equipment.
- Overloading of equipment
- Natural disasters such as strong wind, etc.
- Lack of ring main distribution system.
- Activities of vandals.
In addition to the findings made in this project work, it would be pertinent to make the following recommendations:
- Regular training and retraining of PHCN staff to improve productivity and efficiency particularly with respect to equipment handling and maintenance is necessary.
- PHCN should imbibe a proactive maintenance and management practice to increase equipment’s reliability and extend its lifespan.
- The monitoring team of PHCN should be well paid to enable them combat the activities of vandals and also curb the menace of illegal connection/operation by consumers without compromise.
- The managers should formulate wise strategies, make decisions and monitor progress in the effort to improve the reliability of the system.
- Interconnection of districts with other main substations through ring main network to provide the much needed redundancy in the system network.
- Higher capacity equipment should be installed to curb the problem of overloading.
- Government should enact laws prohibiting the sale of PHCN equipment in the open market.
- Aged equipment should be gradually replaced with new ones to enhance efficiency.
- Consumers/Customer should be should be educated on the proper and most efficient use of energy.
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