Reliability And Power Loss Analysis (A Case Study Of A Power Plant In Nigeria)

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


The consequence of electric power outage goes beyond the frustration experienced. Electric power outage could lead to injuries and sometimes deaths especially when it interferes with the elements of daily utility like the powered elevators in towers and life-saving equipment in the hospitals. In this study, an assessment of the reliability of a power generating plant was carried out to provide an opportunity to checkmate frequent fault occurrence and prolonged outages. Historical data were obtained from a generating plant in Nigeria.

The data were used to evaluate the overall performance of the plant and its generating units. The results showed reliability results of the six units of the plant as 0.00%, 82.39%, 8.25%, 18.60%, 45.98% and 83.41% for units 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, respectively, while the overall reliability was 55.73%. The plant’s availability and capacity factor were 50% and 35%, respectively. The generation loss analysis indicated that gas restriction, grid constraints and plant unavailability prevented the plant from running at maximum continuous ratings (MCR). It was recommended that to have an optimum operation of the entire system, further study should be extended to the transmission and distribution arms of the power system.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

Introduction

  • Background of Study
  • Problem Statement
  • Research Objectives
  • Research Questions
  • Significance of the Study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • Conceptual Review
  • Energy Demand in Nigeria
  • Power Generation Systems
  • Preventive Maintenance and Power Plant Reliability

Chapter Three

Methods And Materials

  • Data acquisition
  • Unit performance analysis
  • Maximum continuous rating (MCR) militating factors

Chapter Four

Results And Discussion

  • Analysis of the operational data
  • Performance analysis of the units
  • Generation loss analysis

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

Background of Study

An electric power system consists of three major components: Generation, Transmission and Distribution. A Generating station generally employs the action of a prime mover coupled to an alternator and at least an external exciter for the production of electric power. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a wind mill or a water turbine which converts energy from other sources into mechanical energy. The external exciter produces the magnetic field. In many cases, the field will be electro-magnetic, and field coils carrying the field current will be wound on a magnetic structure. The iron forming structure will be laminated.

This is to reduce field iron losses. Then the field coils are concentrated and wound around protruding poles called salient poles, or distributed in slots cut into a cylindrical magnetic structure commonly used for AC generators. With this arrangement, a DC current is applied to the field winding (rotor winding) which produces a magnetic field (a rotor magnetic field). The rotor of the generator is then turned by a prime mover producing a rotating magnetic field within the machine. The rotating magnetic fields induces a three phase set of voltages within the stator winding from which output voltage ranging between 11kV and 25kV can be obtained.

This is in accordance to Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction. The electrical energy produced by the generating station is then transmitted over long distance and distributed with the help of transmission lines and distributors to various consumers. In view of the insufficient electric power generation capacity and coupled with power losses and constant outages many industries and consumers faced with unreliable power supply in the country. Hence the focus of this research work is based on reliability and power loss analysis: Ikorodu in Lagos State, Nigeria as a case study.


Problem Statement

The incessant electric power supply problems facing the existence of industries in Nigeria is a pointer to the fact that there is great need for fault evaluation and reliability assessment of electric power system in the country and provide solutions. As it has been earlier said, this problem has grounded many activities and has destroyed many industrial processes. In view of this, a traditional analytical method is developed to access the occurrence of faults and outages along each of the individual consumer point in a feeder, as well as optimizes the reliability of the generation, transmission and distribution system. In view of this, it will be possible to improve on the performance of the system. It will also assist in the generation and transmission of sufficient power, clearing of faults, ensuring adequate protection and reliability of the distribution system that is, bringing a steady uninterrupted power supply to consumers within the distribution area and the entire country

Although the total installed generating capacity is 5,746MW, the country is only able to generate 3,500 MW because most facilities have been poorly managed and the reliability of the generating, transmission and distribution system being very low due to high failure rates of equipment, large energy losses and poor protection system. In addition, Electricity in Nigeria is facing a lot of problems ranging from financial misappropriation, to inadequacy of facilities and non-commitment of PHCN staff. Therefore, the condition has remained pathetic with failures, power failure and non-reliability of the system on daily basis, the effects has grounded many activities and destroyed many industrial processes, and has open ways for mass unemployment, crimes, slow economic and poor national development. Since the management of continuous, reliable and constant power supply in Nigeria is a difficult task, there is a need for the reliability assessment of the power system network. This evaluation will reveal the prevalence and frequency of faults and outages on the distribution system. It will also reveal their effects on the supply of electric power to various consumers. Also, it will be possible to analyze the causes of faults along the transmission and distribution lines. Then adequate system techniques for improving the performance of the system will be achievable.


Research Objectives

The specific objectives of the research work are to:

  1. Study the causes, nature and effects of faults on the distribution network;
  2. Evaluate the occurrence of faults and outages on feeders and distribution networks,
  3. Determine the reliability of the network.
  4. Improve electricity supply in Nigeria.

Research Questions

  1. What are the causes, nature and effects of faults on the distribution network?
  2. What is the level of the occurrence of faults and outages on feeders and distribution networks?
  3. How reliable is the network?
  4. How can electricity supply be improved in Nigeria?

Significance of the Study

The study is expected to:

  1. Provide the reliability indices for Ikorodu distribution network; and
  2. Establish procedure to improve electricity supply to consumers within the distribution system
  3. Establish procedure to improve electricity supply in Nigeria

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

Summary

The supply of electric power in Ikorodu Distribution network is not reliable. It is characterized by a large number of faults. Duration of outages or interruption of power supply is also very high in the area. Load demand kept on increasing on yearly basis. The present demand for electricity in the country is 9437MW and by the year 2015, this value according to the Energy Commission of Nigeria will be increasing to 15,730MW. Yet the country could only generate 3,500MW of electricity out of a total of 6,367 MW power station installed capacity. Because of these irregular problems, many industrial processes have been unfavourably affected. The problem has affected economic growths of local and international industries. Thus production cost and market price of goods and services kept on increasing because the affected industries seek alternative source of power supply through high cost of generators and fuel. Again, it was observed that many of the power and distribution transformers are too old. Thus, making continuous maintenance at high cost, a regular practice in the distribution area. Fault frequency is also very high. It was observed that this high fault frequency affected the failure rates and conversely, reduces the reliability of power system in the distribution area. For example in Lagos Road feeder where the number of consumers is about 4,709, the failure rate for the eight years is 0.0017135 failure/hour/customer. This is too high because in a normal circumstance, anywhere in the world, failure rate should be as low as 0.00001459 failure/hour/customer or even lower. The actual electrical power requirement of customers along Lagos Road feeder is 15.328MW while power supply along the feeder is 6.711MW. This has shown that the quantity of power supply is inadequate in the area.

Load demand kept on increasing in the distribution network area. As at December, 2011, load demand of the customers in Ikorodu was 120MW. Beside this increase in load, the network is characterized by the high number of faults and outages which is over 100 occurrences per annum. All these have made power failure and outage problems regular events in this distribution area. For instance, the net failure rate between years 2004-2011 along Lagos Road feeder is 0.001411 failure/hour/customer. It is even worst along Ayangburen 11kV feeder, over there, the failure rate was at the highest level of 0.002172 failure/hour/customer. And along Ijebu Ode feeder, the failure rate was 0.001834 failure/hour/customer. All these are still on the high side. They are therefore reasons for the incessant supply of electric power in this distribution area. Also, Mean Time Between Failure stands at an average of 583.59 hours along Lagos Road feeder. Mean down time along the feeder is 178.1522 hours. The results show that most of the electrical equipment along this feeder are prone to failure as a result of overload, losses, damages and decrease in efficiency of components. Thus, the supply of electricity along all the feeders is not reliable and needs improvement according to the following recommendations.


Conclusion

In this study, reliability and performance analysis of a power generating plant in Nigeria was analysed. Historical data obtained from the plant were used to appraise the overall performance of the plant and its generating units. Availability and capacity factor were also determined. The overall reliability was found to be 55.73% while the plant’s availability and capacity factor were 50% and 35%, respectively. It was discovered that gas restriction, grid constraints and plant unavailability inhibited the plant from running at maximum continuous rating (MCR). To improve on power supply to the end users, there is a need to ensure adequate gas supply, better maintenance and further examination of the transmission and distribution units of the power system.


Recommendation

The desire of every developing nation is to have a constant power supply but in reality, this dream is far from being realized due to so many factors. To ensure that the power supply is relatively stable, effort should be made to assess the reliability of the power system. One of the power plants assessed has six (6) generating units with the reliability of 0.00%, 82.39%, 8.25%, 18.6%, 45.98% and 83.41%, respectively. The overall reliability of the entire power is 55.73% which accounts for erratic power supply in Nigeria. Some of the identified factors responsible for low reliability are lack of effective maintenance culture, grid constraint, plant unavailability and gas restriction. To guaranty a reliable power supply in the country, major players in the power sector should not only pay attention to maintenance exercise but also conduct this kind of study on the power transmission and distribution.


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