Design And Construction Of A Two Lane Traffic Light

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


The project work is on the design and construction of automatic two lane traffic light control.

This system is based on digital electronics. It employs an astable multivibrator which is the clock generator that sends the clock into a time sequencing generator using a decade counter with ten (10) decodes output that has it’s binary corded decimal (BCD) output into a diode or gate that sends logical data’s into a transistor switching circuit that switches the lamps that raises traffic signals on the two lane junction.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 General Description of the Project

The trend in electronics is tending into digital electronics which make it possible for the birth of computers, digital communication systems like GSM, and industrial automation.

This is the main reason why we have chosen a project topic on the design and construction of an automatic two (2)-lane traffic light control.

This system has always been right from the advent of digital electronics in Nigeria.
Our own project design is the miniature type that employs six (6) light emitting diodes (LED) as the visual display unit (VDU).

The entire system contains four (4) different plus the block that contains the light omitting diodes which makes it five (5) blocks altogether and also a power supply unit (PSU) that supplies the battery voltage.

At the input is an astable multivibrator (AMV) built using 555 timer that provides the intelligence clock signal that determines the timing based on what the time sequence generator interprets from the clock (10 ten decade counter). Then the binary corded decimal (BCD) output is now ored using discret junction diodes as OR gate such that an output is adapted using the functional behaviour of OR-gate into an inter-fase card that contains arrays of transistor switching circuit that switches the six (6) LEDS based on the timing sequencing such that three (3) LEDs for one lane, the other three (3) goes for the other lane, which gives vehicles passing from one lane to another lane traffic signal so as to avoid accidents.


1.2 Design Objective

The objective of this design is to create an electronic circuit using digital components and a few linear components such that a digital output is raised to control the traffic at two lane junction using six (6) lamps rather light emitting diodes LEDS, where three (3) lamps or LEDs serves for one lane and the other three (3) serves for the other lane,
Among the three (3) LEDs

  • One is Red, which signifies that vehicles should move.
  • The second is green and it signifies that vehicles should stop.
  • The third as amber which signifies vehicles should get ready to move.

1.3 Significance of the Project

The project design work signifies a lot in modern industrial electronics.

This design that replaced the manually used agent which is the traffic warden positioned at different traffic junctions.

In most developed towns in Nigeria, this system is employed at every junction, so that traffic jam or hold up will be highly controlled and also accidents at this junction are highly minimized.

In advance countries, the type of traffic light employed are inform of robot whose eyes serves as the visual display unit (VDU) when the traffic rule is violet ed the error detector is effected by the mechanical action of the robot.

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Conclusion


This project, design and construction of a two lane traffic light has made it possible for us to apply our knowledge in various aspects of electronics.

However, the system met our design specification and has proved to be efficient. The system should be properly positioned (for instance at the side of a two lane junctional so that vehicles from either lane can receive traffic signals easily.

Thus with the aid of this circuit, rood accidents and traffic jam or hold up are highly minimized.


Recommendation


For further improvement, we recommend that project work done in ND II should be given in ND I to encourage people to do extensive work on the project to do extensive work on the project implementation, report writing and practical work that surrounds it.

Secondly we recommend that the second year set should convert the system to a micro-processor base design. We believe that this will help to improve the technical know how of ND II finals, thus making them to be self employed.

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