Construction Of A Battery Changer Using Silicon Controlled Regulator SCR

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Construction Of A Battery Changer Using Silicon Controlled Regulator SCR


Abstract


The practical importance of a battery charger in today world cannot be over emphasized. This is so as those batteries accumulators are immensely needed by out auto mobile and in science laboratories.

This thesis describes the methodical approach to the design and construction of any battery charger. However the procedure fro developed cover the construction of battery charger for battery sizes ranging from 6 voltage to 24volatge (heavy duty) batteries.

The prototype of a battery charger for these ranges of batteries has been implemented following the methodical approach as outlined in this thesis and its operational test results are quite satisfactory. adequate care has been taken in the design and construction to ensure that the resultant battery charger are both reliable and easy to use.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

In our society today writing a project is all about applying the theories learnt over the year to produce design and construct and operating system which will be capable of performing a known task.

It is from this point of view that I decoded to write, design and construct this particular project which has the titles construction of a battery charger using SCR (Silicon controlled regulator).

A battery charger is an electric device employed in charging batteries the batteries. The batteries that are usually charged by battery charges are the storage batteries also known as accumulators.


1.1 Background of the Problems

The charger is made up of various electrical and electronics components which for purpose of clarity are grouped into four basic units. They are the power supply unit the smoothening circuit the regulatory unit and the regulated direct current (d.c) charging unit.


1.2 Aim and Objective of the Project

The aim and objective of this project is to highlight and design how to use SCR to charger batteries. Battery charger been constructed in many different ways but the silicon control regulated type is more sensitive than the ordinary battery charger. This is because it has the ability to indicate or detect full charging of a cell the detector or indicator light will automatically lights up when the battery attains a fully charged cell.


1.3 Scope of the Project

Battery charger comes in various design voltages and wattages the choice of a particular kind of charger then depends largely on the size of battery or batteries which one intends to charge the miniature battery charger could be needed to charge one battery whose voltage ranges form 6-12voltage the bigger charger are for batteries with voltages ranging from 12-48 voltage. These are the heavy duty batteries. The battery charger that I am about to construct will successfully charge a battery of 250MA or an equivalent 6-12 volts batteries.


1.4 Organization of the Project

The proceeding chapter of this project is all about the literature review of this project and the indications of a fully charged cell. Chapter three explains the functional block diagram types of charging system. The construction of this project is all stated in detail in chapter four of this report chapter five outlines the summary conclusion component sourcing and references.


Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Suggestions for Further Improvement

5.1 Summary

Having carefully selected all the components that are required for the construction of the charger and built according to the values circuit diagrams as outlined at various stages I was able to design ad construct a workable battery charger.

As preciously mentioned it was not designed for battery whose emf is beyond 16 volts otherwise the charger output voltage will not be sufficient to carry out meaningful charging operation

As with any charger it must not be housed in a room not well ventilated as this will cause heavy gaseous circulation within the room this might endanger the health of the operator as these gas fumes.


5.2 Conclusion

In the implementation of this project what has proved most difficult is the solution of the right values of component for some their circuit values were obtained while others eg instead of using SCR silicon controlled regulator a comparator were used because SCR is no were to be found in the market. But the comparator is now used to replace it but at the end I was able to have a successfully designed and constructed portable battery charger.

The charger is very simple to use infact to a layman what he needs is little instruction and he will be accustomed to its method of working.

There are still further improvement demanded from me mostly in the area of building a more complex and functional charger that could charge cells of high voltages for example 48volatge cells I believe I can attain to much level 25 I continue in my research possibility in my higher diploma.

Also a further improvement is also needed in constructing a battery charger that will be capable of switching off automatically in as much as the cell attains full charging voltage the design and construction of this portable battery charger no doubt has thrilled me to desires to make things work. Infact it actually prepared unto take even more challenging and more comulsome work of this kind with confidence and commitment.

It is was not possible to have this device mass produced and with some improvement for commercial purpose it will survey put smiles on the faces of most people who especially some motorist has long been finding it difficult charging their own batteries at their own convent.


5.3 Component Sourcing and Costing

The importance of costing be appreciated as it supplies us with both the individual and total cost of the component that were to carry out the project. The table below is a list of all the components used and their quantity and prices.


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