Construction Of Temperature Controlled Incubator


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Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Dedication


We dedicate this work to the Lord of Host who has always been with us during the course of this programme. May his name be blessed forever.


Acknowledgement


A million thanks to our supervisor Engr. Onyeje for his fatherly supervision and constructive criticisms in the course of this project, God bless you sir. Most importantly we specially appreciate our families for their moral and spiritual support, May the grace of God continually bind us together.

Finally, a very big thanks to all those who have contributed in one way or the other to see this work become a success. God bless you all.


Abstract


This project comprises of an insulated box with an adjustable heater or temperature controlled circuit. It has been constructed in such a way that the desired temperature for incubation can be individual and automatically controlled by the device. Once the set temperature is reached, the device automatically turns off and does not turn on again until it senses a 3oc drop in the temperature of the incubator.


Chapter One


Introduction

A temperature controlled incubator is a device in which the user can maintain a specific temperature over a duration of time. These incubators include those for hatching eggs, conducting scientific experiments and caring for infants born prematurely.

In their elaborate forms these incubators usually possess the ability to regulate temperature and also control the humidity or carbon (IV) oxide level of their internal environment. This is important in the cultivation of mammalian cells, where the relatively humid environment is typically greater than 95% and a slightly acidic pH is achieved by maintaining a CO2 level of 5%.

Most temperature controlled incubator includes a timer; some can also be programmed to cycle through different temperatures, humidity levels, etc. These incubators can vary in sizes from tabletop units to sizes of small rooms.

Types Of Temperature Controlled Incubators

1) Incubators for Scientific Experiment:

This type of incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures. This incubator maintains optimal temperature, humidity and other conditions such as carbon (IV) oxide (CO2) and oxygen content of the atmosphere inside it. Scientific incubators are essentially for a lot of experimental work in cell biology, microbiology and molecular biology, and are used to culture both bacterial as well as eukaryotic cells. The simplest incubator of this type are insulated boxes with an adjustable heater typically going from 60 to 65oC (140 to 150oF) though some can go slightly higher (generally to not more than 100oC).

2) Infant incubator:

This is often referred to as Isolette and it is an enclosed clear plastic housing that provides a heated and sheltered environment for the care of infants that are too small or sick to maintain their own body temperature. The heat adjusts automatically to keep an infant’s body temperature constant. It is also programmed to create optimal condition through precise control of its hood temperature and humidity.

3) Hatcher or Egg Incubator:

An egg incubator is used to hatch bird or reptile eggs. The incubator keeps the egg warm, allowing the fetuses inside of them to grow and hatch without the mother present. The incubator is set at 98oF (37oC) and the eggs are placed inside. Chicken eggs usually hatch after 21 days, while other birds may take more or less than this.

There are several reasons why an egg incubator may be used. One of such reasons is that a farmer may want to hatch some chicks, but none of his or her hens are broody, hence the only alternative is to use the incubator. These incubators are used in large chicken raising facilities. Another common use of this incubator is in classroom, where students learn about eggs and chicken through watching the eggs hatch after incubating for a few weeks.

Factors Affecting Design And Construction Of An Incubator

1. Thermo-neutrality:

Thermo-neutrality is one of the major environmental factors affecting the performance of an incubator. Severe temperature differences inside an incubator lead to heat loss which is related to air flow and air velocity. In order to prevent this, it is usually necessary to insulate the incubator to prevent any form of heat loss by conduction, convection, radiation or even evaporation.

2. Biocompatibility of material:

Biocompatibility testing is required for all parts of the device that have direct or indirect contact with the egg or fetus to be incubated. It is usually performed to determine the potential toxicity that can result from contact of the component materials of the device with the egg of fetus. The materials used in the construction of the device should not, either directly or indirectly through the release of their material constitute, produce unreasonable risk of adverse local or systemic affects; be carcinogenic; or cause adverse reproductive and developmental effects.

3. Labeling:

It is important to the user that the labeling for the incubator bear clear, accurate, and complete information for use concerning any relevant indication for use, conditions and limitations of use, hazards, contradictions and precautions in their use.

4. Temperature:

Proper incubation temperature is critical to ensuring maximum hatchability of the eggs as well as the best physical condition of embryonic mort. To ensure a proper incubation temperature provision must be made to avoid any increase in temperature above 37oC.

6. Humidity:

Proper control of the incubator’s humidity is also critical for successful hatching of eggs to reach the correct weight loss.


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.


Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic


Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.

Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.

There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?

If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.

Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?

  1. The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
  2. The project topic itself must be meaningful.
  3. The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.

What do I mean by variable?

Well I am deriving my point from the area of project writing; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.

Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.

Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.

I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.

What do I mean by your topic being assessable?

Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.

If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

SAMPHINA ACADEMY

Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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