Design And Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Security System With Intruder Position Display

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


During the invention of security system alarms, in the early 80s technology of system shadow which involves lighten and sensing of objects was at that age found during their experiments using a special material know as light dependent resistor which its family lies in the resistance serials. The development of technology in the world today has yielded many design purposes to inventors depending in the requirements of their design. The growth of theft around the world has led to the inventions of different security system; from their came in the new technology know as intruder alarm security system.

The intruder alarm security system alert is an electronic device which is use in different places in sensing intruders from the point of intrusion when installed in different points. When this device is powered, all the whole points of intrusion are then activated and are set for sensing. When the system is now active for work, if an intrusion occurs from any point in the device the display unit will display the point of intrusion and the system will setup an alarm till the person in charge reset the system.

This circuit is constituted with different electronic components first is the programmable microcontroller(AT89s52) which is programmed for processing purposes, LDR which sense light and shadow when intruded, led illuminating device that lighten the light dependent resistor, the buzzer alarm, the LCD display that displays the position of the intruder, etc. this circuit has many application in homes, offices, factory protective areas, company restricted zones, in military zones, in residential areas etc. Theft detectors are also application of this device and are applied depending on the demand.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.0 Objective of Project Design
  • 1.1 Justification of Project
  • 1.2 Scope of Project
  • 1.3 Constraints
  • 1.4 Block Diagram of Project
  • 1.5 Project Report Organization

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.0 Origin of Project

Chapter Three:

Design Analysis

  • 3.1 Project Specification
  • 3.2 Component description \ Analysis
  • 3.2.1 Step down Transformer
  • 3.2.2 Diodes
  • 3.2.3 Light emitting Diodes
  • 3.2.4 Bridge rectifiers
  • 3.2.5 The Voltage Regulator
  • 3.2.6 Resistors
  • 3.2.7 Transistors
  • 3.2.8 Light dependent Resistors
  • 3.3 Hardware Subsystem
  • 3.3.1 Power supply unit
  • 3.3.2 Display unit
  • 3.3.3 Input interface unit
  • 3.3.4 Microcontroller unit

Chapter Four:

Design Of Project

  • 4.1 Conceptual overview of project layout
  • 4.2 Design process
  • 4.3 Software design
  • 4.3.1 Software development
  • 4.3.2 Testing
  • 4.3.3 Debugging
  • 4.3.4 Development process
  • 4.3.5 Choice of programming language
  • 4.4 Program entry and editing
  • 4.4.1 Compiling and Linking
  • 4.5 Preliminaries of the design
  • 4.5.1 Making an LED blink with AT89S51 Microcontroller
  • 4.6 System control program steps

Chapter Five:

Testing

  • 5.1 System Testing Integration
  • 5.2 Test Plan and Test Data
  • 5.2.1 Component Test
  • 5.2.2 System Test
  • 5.2.3 Transformer Test (step down)
  • 5.2.4 Other Tests
  • 5.3 Experimented Result/ Actual Result
  • 5.4 Performance Evaluation

Chapter Six:

Summary

  • 6.1 Summary and Conclusion
  • 6.2 Summary of Achievement
  • 6.3 Problems Encountered and Solution
  • 6.4 Suggestions for Further Improvement
  • 6.5 Conclusion
  • Reference
  • Appendix

List Of Figures


Figure Title Page

  • Figure 1.1: Block diagram of project
  • Figure 3.1: Transformer circuit representation
  • Figure 3.2: Schematic symbols for diodes
  • Figure 3.2.5: Voltage regulation
  • Figure 3.3: Connecting LED to power supply
  • Figure 3.5: LM7805 integrated circuit internal schematics
  • Figure 3.6: A 7805 Voltage Regulator
  • Figure 3.7: Resistors connected in series
  • Figure 3.8: Resistors connected in parallel
  • Figure 3.9: Resistor color code representation
  • Figure 3.10: Transistor circuit representation
  • Figure 3.11: Current path of a transistor
  • Figure 3.12: Mode of NPN transistor
  • Figure 3.13: Electromechanical relay
  • Figure 3.14: A 5V regulated supply
  • Figure 3.15: Transformer circuit and waveform representation
  • Figure 3.16: Transformer + Rectifier
  • Figure 3.17: Transformer + Rectifier + Capacitor
  • Figure 3.18: Transformer + Rectifier + Capacitor + Regulator
  • Figure 3.19: Seven segment display layout
  • Figure 3.20: Internal circuitry of the types of seven segment display
  • Figure 3.21: Input sensor design
  • Figure 3.22: Pin configuration of AT89S51
  • Figure 3.23: Block diagram of AT89S51 internal circuit
  • Figure 4.1: Block diagram of project
  • Figure 4.2: Flow chart of project
  • Figure 4.3: Circuit diagram of Project
  • Figure 4.4: Software design

List Of Tables


Table Title Page

  • Table 3.1: Voltage regulator output voltage
  • Table 3.2: Resistor color code
  • Table 3.3: Common anode seven segment display pattern
  • Table 3.4: Port 3 pin functions
  • Table 3.5: LCD display
  • Table 5.1: Test for Transistor
  • Table 5.2: Experienced value / Actual value

Chapter One


Introduction

1.0 Background Of The Study

The microcontroller Based Security System with Intruder Position Display is a design that applies automated security system in homes, Industries, military etc. The project will feature a system that will track the presence of an intruder in restricted area and also inform the user about the position of the intruder.

This Project will be based on microcontroller and other electronic design to achieve the above stated purposes. The interfacing medium will make use of parallel port. The sensors (Light Dependent Resistor and LEDS) will receive the signal when the intruder is around wile the control program will translate the received signal from the sensors to useful information about the function of the system.

In this design we have implored the use of both hardware and software to bring about the entire project. The hardware components are solely coordinated by the AT89S52 micro controller chip while the assembly programming language is used to program the chip


1.1 Aims and Objectives of the Project

Environmental security against an intruder has become a thing of individual, national and international concern. The essence of this project is to provide a cost effective and more efficient security system in areas like homes, industries military etc.

The application of this project will enhance effectiveness necessitating to security measures. It relevance, upgrades the conventional security system to automated system that will require little of human intervention.

This project will also build a platform for further sophistication of automated security system by detailing all the measures taken in realizing this system.(microcomputer Based Security System). This will ensure a complete intruder proof system which will take care in this design we have implored the use of both hardware and software to bring about the entire project. The hardware components are solely coordinated by the AT89S52 micro controller chip while the assembly programming language is used to program the chip


1.2 Project Justification

Environmental security against an intruder has become a thing of individual, national and international concern. The essence of this project is to provide a cost effective and more efficient security system in areas like homes, industries military etc.

The application of this project will enhance effectiveness necessitating to security measures. It relevance, upgrades the conventional security system to automated system that will require little of human intervention.

This project will also build a platform for further sophistication of automated security system by detailing all the measures taken in realizing this system.(microcomputer Based Security System). This will ensure a complete intruder proof system which will take care of future intrusion technique.


1.3 Scope of Project

Since security systems ranges from simple to complex systems, in trends and effectiveness. The depth of my work on this project will build a system that will be able to check the security of home and small industries. It will feature four (4) sensing circuits that could be check the intrusion of an intruder in up to four different positions or location. A single alarm system that will alert about the presence of an intruder and also, the display of an intruder position using the Visual Display Unit of the microcomputer.


1.4 Constraints

The biggest setback experienced during the course of this project is financial difficulties in funding the design of the project Secondly, sourcing of materials and components used was not easy. Finding the heating element wasn’t an easy task. I had to destroy two soldering irons, one electric iron, two electric boilers and my only hair dryer in search of a suitable heating element for my design. Some of the components I used for this project were very difficult to find like the buffer (74LS541) for programming the microcontroller.

Furthermore, I received a severe electric shock while trying to interface my heater into my design that made me to almost give up.


1.5 Block Diagram Overview of the Stages

This project report written is designed in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown below

Design And Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Security System With Intruder Position Display


1.6 Project Report Organization

The organization of the project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage. It covers all the activities encountered during the research work.

The first chapter is the introductory chapter, which covers the background, project objectives, project justification, scope of the project, constraints and block diagram overview of the states.

Chapter two presents the literature reviews

Chapter three covers the system analysis and design in details

Chapter four presents the system implementation which entails the component layout, the wiring schedule, the wiring diagram and also the complete schematic diagram.

Chapter five covers the testing and integration of the project design

Chapter six is the summary and conclusion which includes the summary of achievements, problems encountered during project design, recommendation and suggestion for further improvement.


Chapter Six


Summary

6.1 Summary and Conclusion

This section of this project report forms the concluding part of the write up and takes a look at some of the problems encountered during the progressive job on the system and also brings in suggestions for further improvement and/or enhancement for the system design.


6.2 Summary of Achievement

The design and development of this project has really been challenging, as I have been faced with choices far beyond what I expected. But in the long run the result paid off.

After the complete design of the system, the deviation between the expected result and the actual result was very close. The performance and efficiency was beyond expectation and from every ramification, the design of the project was a success.


6.3 Problems Encountered and Solution

During the course of the design of this system, there were series of problems which came in the way of achieving the design goals of this project, most of them where over come via share troubleshooting, in some cases some parts require redesigning and the software debugging also created a bit of a problem.

One major set back of this project is the availability of components required to build the hardware of the system. In most cases I had to look through electrical catalogs to obtain replacements of some of the components which are not available in the market.

After developing the software for the microcontroller, it was very difficult to find a firm/individual to help program the chip (burning the embedded software on to the chip). This posed serious problem as it brought about delay in the design time and it was also costly, this also affected the overall cost of the system.

The final packaging of the design was also another trouble, as this actually caused problems on the circuit board. Such problems include partial contact within the circuit board, between components and also with the wiring. This was actually one of the most challenging aspects of the circuit implementation phase. Due to this fact, there was a lot of soldering and de-soldering to ensure that the circuit was well implemented.


6.4 Suggestions for further improvement

It will be more appreciated if the system is designed to have integrated voice output playback with video capture.


6.5 Conclusion

Going through the planning, flow process, design and software implementation the system had really been a tough one; but on the whole it has been a chance to show case a little bit of craftsmanship.


Design And Construction Of A Microcontroller Based Security System With Intruder Position Display


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