Design And Construction Of An Automatic Phase Selector
This is a technical report presented on the design and construction of an Automatic Phase Selector.
In the construction work, an ordinary level knowledge of electronics principles are observed. We aimed at presenting a practical aspect of the subject and then providing the argument necessary for a thorough understanding. The reliability of the specimen was estimated after construction and testing to ensure steady state stability. The work is organized into five chapters.
Chapter one introduced the subject matter. Chapter two explores the literature review of the related works. Chapter three contains a detailed account of the design work while chapter four closely attempted an analysis of the design work. Chapter five draws the curtain by concluding the work.
As the growing population of human race widens the gulf between energy supply and energy demand, the imbalance in energy availability sent researchers into excavating for a way of settling this age long squabble. A lasting solution is vested on alternative use of the renewable energy source, a project that is yet to be widely applied. Hence, the continuation of the unsettled yearn for sufficient power. Consequently, the power lines are frequently over loaded resulting to a trip of power by the action of switch gears or by the load shading process undertaken by the distribution authorities.
Since it is crystal clear that some institutions such as health related institutions and some other delicate systems should not be allowed to suffer equally with their counterparts, Automatic Phase Selector is used to sustain energy consumption in the time of phase trip. The design of this circuit involves the use of automatic switches but the details of design varies from place to place, time to time and also depends on the type of load involved.
This project involves the use of transistor driven relays to affect the change of phase whenever the voltage condition becomes intolerable in the previous phase connected.
1.1 Aims / Objectives of the Project
The analysis of this project cannot go without enumerating the goals meant to be achieved in the pursuit of the work. These objectives include:-
- To develop a simple low cost device aimed at easing the prevalent burden faced by delicate offices, parastatals and institutions who need very low but constant power supply. Since supply is always on along the distribution lines that supply such sites, what pesters on the progress of work thereof is always the unwarranted trip of phases due to power usage from neighbouring consumers. The automatic phase selector therefore, erase this setback form the face of progress of work in such offices.
- To stimulate the interest of upcoming students to take up research not only in their field of study “Electrical/Electronics Engineering” but also to extend their arms to other disciplines, thus enhancing the versatility of Electrical/Electronics Engineering.
- To create awareness that will stimulate the interest of fellow students who intend to take up research topic on automatic switch of any type.
Emphatically, the purpose of this project is to build an automatic switch system which is capable of selecting a phase with best operating voltage for delicate offices.
1.2 Significance of Study
The significance of this project work cannot be overemphasized. This is because the number of lives that has being lost to the hand of interruption of power in health institutions and the like is not negligible. Delicate appliances have become the main victim of this artificial circumstance. The applicability of the outcome of this research work in several facets of human endeavour makes this work of real importance to humanity.
The use of the device produced from this research work would help to reduce human labour and hazard, going by the fact that many have been handicapped by electric shock because of the attempt they made to select another phase, and that the handicapped are helpless and cannot change phases.
The designing of this circuit was accomplished by a constant and detailed study of the c constituent components.
This involved the study of their characteristics in isolation, and when connected together with some other components. A rough design was always made with some theoretical backup. Those designs were implemented and tested using project boards.
The internet was visited for circuit ideas where problems were encountered and the necessary adjustments made on paper and then effected on the projects board.
Each block that works was transferred to the Vero board where it was finally soldered in position. Library materials were consulted as well.
Discussion of Result, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Discussion of Result
The implemented circuit is a close reflection of the objective of this work. It simulates an automatic switch with an intrinsic ability of searching for a suitable live wire to hook on to whenever any of the previously supply phase among the three goes dead. The additional feature supported by the voltage programmable current sink internally incorporated into the circuit to skip some very low voltage as it seeks a suitable phase.
To sum up, the result was in accordance to the expectation when the circuit was tested. The design calculations made assured that the internal components of the circuit can work round the clock as it is meant to, without any one getting over heated and burning out. Therefore the longevity of the device as well as the reliability is assured to the user.
This project has illustrated how to design and construct an automatic phase selector. There may be many other ways of achieving a very straight forward way of obtaining the desired result using classical design techniques. The beauty of the work lies in the fact that it can be used round the clock and it can neglect a phase with very low voltage.
The construction of this automatic phase selector was interesting, stimulating and challenging but only in its efficient performance can any real level of success be measured.
- Since there is need for load balancing in a three phase distribution line, a universal usage of this type of phase selector may imply over loading a particular phase which phase voltage is up to the normal required value. Since similar devices will switch on simultaneously to one phase, it should only be advisable to use the device in an exclusive case of power consumption.
- Any part of domestic installation using the automatic phase selection output should be isolated from any other wiring system from the service mains since failure to do so may imply a risk of short circuiting two phases.
- The automatic phase selector should not be used in applications that draw more than 20A alternating current, noting that the maximum rating of the automatic switches is 20A
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