Automatic Phase Sequence Indicator
The automatic three phase indicator is a device designed to automatically show the sequence of a three phase power supply system. The unit can be introduced to hospitals, industries, conference halls, institution or any organizations that requires continuous/uninterrupted power to maintain their data; Automatic phase indicator introduces an automatic solution to overcome power fluctuations or phase related error by showing the right sequence of the phase so that equipment that needs a three phase supply can be effectively powered.
As the world becomes technologically advanced there is a rising need to improve the existing electrical gadgets to suit man in their daily Endeavour to improve the worth of life with less fatigue.
Before switchgears were invented the making and breaking of electrical units had been a manual process, even at present age most of our phase correction system has being manually operated.
In our great institution, Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri, some of the phases in PHCN (Power Holding Company Of Nigeria) power supply fails while others keeps functioning, these phases remain dead till the faults are rectified and power restored sometimes after several days, the worst being when this occur during the weekend when the electrical technicians are out of duty, students and staffs living in the premises have to suffer the failure till when power is restored manually into the phases.
The ‘THE AUTOMATIC THREE PHASE INDICATOR’ is a gadget that has the ability to show the sequence of the supply voltage, this gadget is therefore an electronic/electrical based device that has the capability of changing over dead phases automatically(without the availability of a manual operator)
This device can find good application in places where there is need for constant power supply, for example, in places like hospitals, hotels, school laboratories industries, offices etc.
Its design and construction is motivated by several factors like its relative low cost, the speed, the efficiency and the safety when compared to manual phase switching operation. It has as its major disadvantage the replacement of human operator with an electronic device, which may lead to unemployment, but it has so many advantages, therefore it is worth constructing.
Summary / Conclusion, Modification, Recommendation
5.1 Summary / Conclusion
It is good to still stress on the fact that the main purpose of designing and construction of this project work is to device a gadget that would automatically change-over phase from dead one to live during case of phase failure. With the ideas and efforts of all the project members and the keen supervision of our project supervisor, the device was successfully designed and constructed. It performed the desired function of automatically selecting a live phase from the three phase of the mains supply when the serving one failed. Also phase indicator can be achieved by switching off the phase, manually. This helps the user to change-over from a phase whose voltage output is poor to another one with appreciable voltage magnitude.
Since every engineering work is subject to regular improvement to meet the ever changing needs of the consumers or the advances in science and technology this device can be modified to improved its utility and automation. The suggested modifications includes׃
a. Incorporation of voltage sensor:
This circuit is expected to sense the magnitude of voltage in each of the three phases and change-over to the phase with the highest voltage rating. It will help in the elevation of voltage in the consumer’s terminal.
b. Change of relays to contactors׃
This change from relays to contactors will improve the live of the gadget. The contactors have higher ampere rating than relays and thereby would avoid heating up of the contacts point due to load pressure.
c. Introduction of mains to generator change-over switch׃
This will improve the strength of the gadgets working capacity. It will equally make the application more versatile.
With the introduction of all suggested modification, the best service and performance would be desired from this project work.
The increasing irregularity in power supply from PHCN and the necessity of a round the clock power supply in industries, hospitals, schools, business center etc. certainly justifies the building of this project work.
Also the economic prospects of mass production of this project is highly promising due to its relatively low cost and reliability in performing its intended functions.
This project is therefore recommended for use to all consumers of PHCN supply using three phase especially where delay is dangerous. The case of manually changing-over phase using cut out fuses will be totally eliminated. Equally there will be no need of waiting for technicians or PHCN officials to restore power to a failed phase before the consumer enjoy power supply.
5.4 Bill Of Engineering Measurement And Valuation
The total cost incurred in the process of building this device is about N 4860.00 The device is therefore seen to be economically advantageous. Moreover, the components and unit price is stated in the bill of quantity below.
Fig 5.1 Costing table/bill of quantity (available in the complete material)
- The price above are the market price of the component as at November, 2011.
- The cost of labour is included.
Automatic Phase Sequence Indicator
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