Animation can be defined as the rapid display of sequence of images of 2-D or 3-D artwork or model positions in order to create an illusion of movement.
Computer animation encompasses a variety of techniques, the unifying idea being that the animation is created digitally on a computer. You can use programs like MPLab, Blender 3d, AutoDesk Maya, 3d max, and many others to create computer animation.
2D animation figures are created and/or edited on the computer using 2D bitmap graphics or created and edited using 2D vector graphics. This includes automated computerized versions of traditional animation techniques such as of tweening, morphing, onions skinning and interpolated rotoscoping. 3D animation digital models manipulated by an animators. In order to manipulate a mesh, it is given a digital armature (sculpture).
This process is called rigging. Various other techniques can be applied, such as mathematical functions (ex. Gravity, particle simulations), simulated fur or hair, effects such as fire and water and the use of motion capture to name but a few. Many 3D animations are very believable and are commonly used as special effects for recent movies.
3D animation can create images that seem real to the viewer.
2D animation techniques tend to focus on image manipulation while 3D techniques usually build virtual world in which characters and objects move and interact.
1.1 Animation Techniques
Traditional Animation (Also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation). Traditional animation was the process used for most animated films of the 20th century. The individual frames of a traditionally animated film are photographs of drawings, which are first drawn on paper. To create the illusion of movement, each drawing differs slightly from the one before it.
The animators’ drawings are traced or photocopied onto transparent acetate sheets called cels, which are filled in with paints in assigned colors or tones on the side opposite the line drawings. The completed character cels are photographed one-by-one onto motion picture film against a painted background by a rostrum camera.
The traditional cel animation process became obsolete by the beginning of the 21st century. Today animators’ drawings and the backgrounds are either scanned into or drawn directly into a computer system. Various software programs are used to color the drawings and simulate camera movement and effects.
The final animated piece is output to one of several delivery mediums, including traditional 35mm film and newer media such as digital video. The “look” of traditional cel animation is still preserved, and the character animators’ work has remained essentially the same over the past 70 years. Some animation produces have used the term “tradigital” to describe cel animation, which makes extensive use of computer technology.
Examples of traditionally animated feature films include Pinocchio (united state, 1940), animal farm (united kingdom, 1954), and Akira (Japan, 1988). Traditional animated films which were produced with the aid of computer technology include the lion king (us, 1994) sin to Chihiro no Kamikakushi (spirited away) (Japan 2001), and les Triplett’s de Belleville (2003).
Full animation refers to the process of producing high-quality traditionally animated films, which regularly use detailed drawings and plausible movement. Fully animated films can be done in a variety of styles, from realistically designed works such as those produced by the Walt Disney studio, to the more “cartoony” styles of those produced by the Warner bros. Animation studio.
Limited animation involves the use of less detailed and/or more stylized drawings and methods of movement. Pioneered by the artists at the American studio united productions of America, limited animation can be used as a method of stylized artistic expression, as in Gerald Mcboing Boing (us, 1951), and much of the anime produced in Japan.
Rotoscoping is a technique, patented by Max Fleischer in 1917, where animators trace live-action movement, frame by frame. The source film can be directly copied from actors’ outlines into animated drawings, as in the lord of the rings (us, 1978), used as a basis and inspiration for character animation, as in most Disney films, or used is a stylized and expressive manner, as in walking life (us, 2001) and a scanner darkly (us, 2006).
1.2 Stop Motion
Stop-motion animation, used to describe animation created by physically manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame of film at a time to create the illusion of movement. There are many different types of stop-motion animation, usually named after the type of media used to create the animation. Computer software is widely available to create this type of animation.
Clay animation, or plasticine animation often abbreviated as Claymation, uses figures made of clay or a similar malleable material to create stop-motion animation. The figures may have an armature or wire frame inside of them, similar to the related puppet animation, that can be manipulated in order to pose the figures. Examples of clay-animated works include the Gumby show (us, 1957-1967), The amazing Mr. Bickford (us, 1987), The trap door (UK, 1984).
Graphic animation uses non-drawn flat visual graphic material (photographs, newspaper clippings, magazines, etc.), which are sometimes manipulated frame-by-frame to create movement. At other times, the graphics remain stationary, while the stop-motion camera is moved to create on-screen action.
Flip book: a flip book (sometimes, especially in British English, flick book) is a book with a series of pictures that very gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change. Flip books are often illustrated books for children, but may also be geared towards adults and employ a series of photographs rather than drawings.
Flip books are not always separated books, but may appear as an added feature in ordinary books or magazines, often in the page corners. Software packages and websites are also available that convert digital video files into custom-made flip
1.3 The Uses Of Animation
Animation is used for many things like film, flight simulation, science and art. Film is a favorite use of computer animation. Movies such as “Jurassic park”, and “abyss” use computer animation that poison the minds of the very young by giving them attractive moving object that talk and tell the objectives of the artist.
It is also used in architecture like making model houses so that their clients can take a virtual tour. In programs like these, furniture and appliances can be added. It is also used to create 3D video games. It is infact used in many professions and can also be a profession itself.
1.4 Project Motivation
A vital aspect of modern day electronics is the use of circuits whose output are either 0 or 1. In most digital circuits there are only two voltage levels for example 0v and 5v. These voltages are referred to as logic levels. This logic is referred to as either 0s or 1s.
Therefore grouping zero (0s) and one (1s) can monitor digital operation and information. This monitored information can be modified and stored. These two state circuits (0s and 1s) can be used to perform a wide range of control functions from single to complex digital electronics. The efficiency of the circuits is limited by the fact that it is software driven.
The heart of the electronics display is the micro controller. It is the part where logical operations are carried out. This micro controller contains a single integrated circuit. They are used to interpret the input, communicate with other devices and output data to a Variety of devices.
In this capacity, they can reduce the cost of products significantly by reducing the number of components required to carry out complex functions in the design of this project and also constitute a great deal of flexibility in the cost effectiveness and gives designers the choice of using the same hardware design for a variety of application with each unique software. The single fact is that, they can be used in such diverse applications indicates its versatility in taking over many tasks that were primarily considered beyond implementation.
5.0 Conclusions And Recommendation
This project is of tremendous help to our knowledge as students. The circuit diagram of this project looks simple but introduce some difficulties during constructions on the Vero board.
For every project to be done, care must be taking in the act of construction and also for efficiency in performance of the components. It is not an easy task to carryout project of this nature. Hard work, patience and being encouraged are some factors that aided to the success of this project.
I want to recommend that this project should be connected to a steady power supply, as fluctuation may damage the circuit, it should be placed in a dry and well-ventilated place to ensure its durability. This project has a fascinating feature that makes i flexible, user friendly, attractive and durable. Its uses are accepted in the history of technology. Its package is made precise and resistive corrosion or rusting.
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