Solar Powered Security Lighting System
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With gratitude, we dedicate this project report to God Almighty for his divine grace and to our parents, brother and sisters for their love and support for our education.
We express our profound gratitude to our academic mentors, fellow students and our competent supervisor, Engr. (Rev). B.C. Agwah whose ideas and suggestions helped us to produce this work.
We continue to be indebted to our colleagues in the electrical/electronic Engineering programme notably, Mr. Ube Ifeanyi Ezekiel and Mr. Osigwe Williams M. for their certified support and encouragement.
We also wish to express our heart felt gratitude to our parents, brothers and sisters for their love, support and encouragement throughout the period of our studies, we salute them.
May God bless those who helped in one way or the other to make sure that this project work is being completed.
Finally, we give thanks to God the father, God the son and God the Holy Spirit, our counselor, protector, sustainer and provider, we bow in worship and adoration be onto him Amen.
Electricity failure is one of the major causes of death, injury and lost of property, especially in low and middle income countries Nigeria, each year over million people are killed and some ten million people lost their properties due to electricity failure.
Furthermore, it is estimated that electricity failure have caused a very big loss in this country. The technology guiding the use of solar energy has progressed significantly to enable projects to be feasible throughout the world. In the solar powered security lighting, the solar panel charges the internal batteries during the day, at night batteries illuminate when light sensitive photocells turns them ON at dusk, OFF at dawn or automatically in dark. Solar powered security lighting has been suggested as a relatively low-cost intervention with a great solution to home, office, community and environmental security system due to safety and security concerns.
In this project we built a solar-powered security lighting system which could be applied to home, community, office or environment.
Table Of Contents
- Title page i
- Approval page ii
- Dedication iii
- Acknowledgement iv
- Abstract v
- Table of contents vi
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Block Diagram Design
- 1.3 Principles of operation
- 2.1 Literature Review
- 3.1 Method of design
- 3.2 Schematic diagram
- 3.3 Components used
- 3.4 Soldering
- 3.5 Vero board
- 3.6 Testing
- 4.1 Result analysis
- 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Conclusion
- 5.2 Recommendation
Solar powered security lighting system is a raised source of light on the edge of a road, environment or community which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night.
Security lights are one of the most practical and effective ways to prevent crime in or around their home or office. Infact statistics show that a well lighted property cannot prevent malicious activity or guarantee personal safety, but crimes are les likely to occur because lighting is an excellent deterrent.
A security lighting system is a deterrent because it exposes the criminals making them feel vulnerable and insecure. Criminals most likely look for areas with little to no lighting for obvious reasons.
Home owners on the other hand, can benefit from a lighting security system that can detect and recognize movement in an otherwise overlooked and dark surrounding downward directed and shield security lighting of medium intensity provides the best vision for outdoor lighting. In addition to the position of the security lights, controlling the glare is a major consideration.
This is crucial because home owner who can see the criminal can possible provide authorities with descriptions information and other valuable clues.
There are many types of security lighting and outdoor security system on the market today. To help you better understand the differences it is best to divide security lighting into two basic lamp categories.
HID and Halogen or Incandescent as follows:
HID Or High Intensity Discharge:HID light sources are designed to operate by using magnetic or electronic ballasts in combination with a gas filled lamp. The purpose of the ballast is to convert the supply voltage to a high operating voltage necessary to excite to gas in the lamp creating the light.
Everyone is familiar with mercury vapour lighting. These are the blue-green coloured security lights you have seen way up tree tops, or perhaps attached to your neighbor’s house other types of outdoor flood lighting, include metal halide, high pressure sodium, and fluorescent. With the exception of fluorescent, all of these sources require a warm-up period and a re-strike time to return to full intensity should be power go off.
They are not designed for instantaneous use and should be supplemented by other sources for panic or spontaneous lighting. High intensity discharge products are energy efficient, long lasting an d very commonly use din land use lighting.
Halogen or incandescent light sources:Halogen fixtures are designed to operate on standard house current. These light bulbs contain a carbon filament suspended on several supports within the lamp envelops which glow when current is passed through the lamp. These lights which your see on everybody’s house are perfect for continuous or instant tenuous use because they require no warm up period. These security lights produce a white to yellow colour and are less desirable for aesthetic lighting application. These lights do work well in combination with tree lighting or moon lighting jobs as supplemental security lighting.
Another tool commonly used in security lighting is motion detectors or occupancy sensors. These hardy devices turn the security lights on and off when motion or movement is detected maxing them ideal for security lighting and energy management. Because they are constantly switching the lights OFF and ON the lights, they cannot be used to control high intensity discharge source. They are perfect for controlling halogen or incandescent source. It is important to position your security lights out of arms reach so that they cannot be disabled or destroyed by intruders. Remember, the best position is a downward position, so mount them as high as possible on your home, office, or community for safe, reliable operation.
1.2 Block Diagram Design
A rough sketch on how the project would look like was first draw, detailing all the components blocks that would make-up the complete system. Once drawn and checked for consistency we proceeded to the second phase.
This material contains electrical diagrams, circuits, illustrations and more (Very detailed)
I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic
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How to nail it on the head during your project defence
You are through with writing that project. Now what?
You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.
- How am I going to start?
- I hope I will do well enough to get an A.
You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.
I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.
Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.
Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:
Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.
Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:
Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.
Speak With Authority:
Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.
Use, Your Gestures:
I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.
Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:
Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.
Make Sure You Know Your Work:
Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.
Prepare For The Questions:
Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.
These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.
The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are
The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.
Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;
- Background of the study,
- Statement of the problem,
- Objectives or aims of the study,
- The research questions,
- Research hypothesis,
- Significance of the study,
- Scope of the study,
- Limitations of the study and
- Operational definition of terms.
2. Literature review
Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
3. Research Methodology
This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected. This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.
4. Results & Discussion
This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question. Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported. In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.
5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner. It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.
This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.
Choosing A Good Project / Research Topic
Students in Nigerian universities these days wish to choose a very simple project topic/material. There is no issue choosing a simple project topic; the only problem is your ability to choose a good project or research topic that your supervisor will easily approve for you.
Most project supervisors really want to see how good his or her project student understands his or her surrounding through the kind of topic he or she chooses for their project work.
There are some project topic that are not reject-able; for instance in Nigeria of today; what do you think is the major issue on ground now?
If a project student can choose or craft a topic on the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. Such project topic will be very interesting to write on.
Now what are the qualities of a good project topic?
- The materials for the project topic must be easily assessable.
- The project topic itself must be meaningful.
- The variables must be able to give a clear aim of the project topic.
What do I mean by variable?
Well I am deriving my point from the area of ; the variables here are those main words in the project topic.
Like the above project topic; the effect of dollar increment on the economy of Nigeria. You can see the main variables that really define this project topic are:dollar, increment and economy.
Before you present your topic to your project supervisor, first of all understand your project topic, and then secondly try to do some research for your topic to see if at least you can get up to 60% of what you need to write the complete project.
I said that above because you might have a very nice topic that the materials are not available online and there are no books as regard the topic; in this case the project topic becomes difficult for you even though the topic is catchy.
What do I mean by your topic being assessable?
Well what I mean is very simple and easy to understand. Simply pick your project topic, type it on google and see if you will have at least a good background for the topic you are writing on.
If you can have a good background for your project topic and you can understand the problem associated with the project topic, then I believe the aim of the project is not far-fetched.