Solar Powered Security Lighting System

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


Electricity failure is one of the major causes of death, injury and lost of property, especially in low and middle income countries Nigeria, each year over million people are killed and some ten million people lost their properties due to electricity failure.

Furthermore, it is estimated that electricity failure have caused a very big loss in this country. The technology guiding the use of solar energy has progressed significantly to enable projects to be feasible throughout the world. In the solar powered security lighting, the solar panel charges the internal batteries during the day, at night batteries illuminate when light sensitive photocells turns them ON at dusk, OFF at dawn or automatically in dark. Solar powered security lighting has been suggested as a relatively low-cost intervention with a great solution to home, office, community and environmental security system due to safety and security concerns.

In this project we built a solar-powered security lighting system which could be applied to home, community, office or environment.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of contents

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Block Diagram Design
  • 1.3 Principles of operation

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Literature Review

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Method of design
  • 3.2 Schematic diagram
  • 3.3 Components used
  • 3.4 Soldering
  • 3.5 Vero board
  • 3.6 Testing

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Result analysis

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation
  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Introduction

Solar powered security lighting system is a raised source of light on the edge of a road, environment or community which is turned on or lit at a certain time every night.

Security lights are one of the most practical and effective ways to prevent crime in or around their home or office. Infact statistics show that a well lighted property cannot prevent malicious activity or guarantee personal safety, but crimes are les likely to occur because lighting is an excellent deterrent.

A security lighting system is a deterrent because it exposes the criminals making them feel vulnerable and insecure. Criminals most likely look for areas with little to no lighting for obvious reasons.

Home owners on the other hand, can benefit from a lighting security system that can detect and recognize movement in an otherwise overlooked and dark surrounding downward directed and shield security lighting of medium intensity provides the best vision for outdoor lighting. In addition to the position of the security lights, controlling the glare is a major consideration.

This is crucial because home owner who can see the criminal can possible provide authorities with descriptions information and other valuable clues.

There are many types of security lighting and outdoor security system on the market today. To help you better understand the differences it is best to divide security lighting into two basic lamp categories.
HID and Halogen or Incandescent as follows:

HID Or High Intensity Discharge: HID light sources are designed to operate by using magnetic or electronic ballasts in combination with a gas filled lamp. The purpose of the ballast is to convert the supply voltage to a high operating voltage necessary to excite to gas in the lamp creating the light.

Everyone is familiar with mercury vapour lighting. These are the blue-green coloured security lights you have seen way up tree tops, or perhaps attached to your neighbor’s house other types of outdoor flood lighting, include metal halide, high pressure sodium, and fluorescent. With the exception of fluorescent, all of these sources require a warm-up period and a re-strike time to return to full intensity should be power go off.

They are not designed for instantaneous use and should be supplemented by other sources for panic or spontaneous lighting. High intensity discharge products are energy efficient, long lasting an d very commonly use din land use lighting.

Halogen or incandescent light sources: Halogen fixtures are designed to operate on standard house current. These light bulbs contain a carbon filament suspended on several supports within the lamp envelops which glow when current is passed through the lamp. These lights which your see on everybody’s house are perfect for continuous or instant tenuous use because they require no warm up period. These security lights produce a white to yellow colour and are less desirable for aesthetic lighting application. These lights do work well in combination with tree lighting or moon lighting jobs as supplemental security lighting.

Another tool commonly used in security lighting is motion detectors or occupancy sensors. These hardy devices turn the security lights on and off when motion or movement is detected maxing them ideal for security lighting and energy management. Because they are constantly switching the lights OFF and ON the lights, they cannot be used to control high intensity discharge source. They are perfect for controlling halogen or incandescent source. It is important to position your security lights out of arms reach so that they cannot be disabled or destroyed by intruders. Remember, the best position is a downward position, so mount them as high as possible on your home, office, or community for safe, reliable operation.


1.2 Block Diagram Design

A rough sketch on how the project would look like was first draw, detailing all the components blocks that would make-up the complete system. Once drawn and checked for consistency we proceeded to the second phase.

Block Diagram of Solar Powered Security Lighting System Circuit diagram of solar powered security lighting system


1.3 Principles Of Operation

Solar security lighting is being sourced by 12v sealed rechargeable battery with a switch to control to turn ON and OFF the circuit. The battery which is consumed by the circuit and the flash lamp is recharge by the solar panel which is mounted on the pole above the security lighting. The solar panel which always depends on the sunlight to enable it to charge the battery because what solar panel dose is to convert the heat of the sunlight to dc voltage. The solar panel is fixedly connected to the 12volts battery for charging there is sunlight.

The security lighting control sensor section is being constructed by using the light dependent resistor (LDR) which converts the light of the sun into resistance connected to the inverting inputs pin of LM358 (dual cp-amp) with variable resistor to adjust the input voltage vref of 5volt is connected to the non-inverting input pin of LM358 using 5v zener diode which used as voltage references and as shunt regulators to regulate the voltage across small circuits and ix resistor which used to limit the flow of current in the circuit.

When there is daylight the LDR will be high in resistance and the voltage value of the inverting input pin will be higher than then vref in the non-inverting input pin in which the output pin of the op-amp will go high as the sunlight goes down, the LDR resistance reduce and the value in the inverting pin reduces till it goes lower than the vref then the output pin goes low.

The switching of the solar security lighting is automatic which depends on the state of daylight and darkness. The output pin (low) of the op-amp is connected to the pin 2 of NE 555 (monostable) which will trigger the monostable. The monostable is use to delay the flash of security lighting whenever the LDR sense the daylight for some seconds before it goes off.

The output current of the NE555 monostable section is too low to switch the flash lamp, then it is buffered by NPN transistor which switches on the 12v relay so as to ON the 12v dc flash lamp.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

An initial investment in a solar panel system may prove to be a worthwhile purchase, as it is possible to cut down electricity expenses to a drastic degree by using solar power instead of electricity provided by a powered line. Many home appliances along with your home, community, office or environmental security lighting system can be powered through this energy source, allowing you protect your home efficiently and promotes a heather environment.


5.2 Recommendation

Solar powered security lighting system has been a good research in the modern development country like Nigeria. I’m happy that it’s being used in some areas like home, community, office or environment. It would be better if the solar powered security lighting goes around in other to enhance adequate security and beautifying environment.


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