Construction Of 2000 Watts Uninterrupted Power Supply

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Abstract


An uninterruptible power supply has been designed, constructed and tested. It has a battery driven inverter that gives an output of 2000VA, thereby inverting a 12V D. C. source to 240V ac output.

The power unit was able covert the 240V ac line supplies from NEPA to DC supply and also change the batter by converting the AC supply to DC output required for battery charging. The IC type multivibrator or oscillator amplify the DC from the battery and give an output of 50Hertz required by electrical appliance.

Finally, the UPS was able to generate a rating of 2000VA, 240V ac from the battery supply when there was power failure and it gives square wave of 50Hz frequency.

This project is divided into four chapters.

Firstly, the introduction, history and development of the UPS with aims and objectives.

Secondly, literature reviews meaning of UPS, types of UPS and the functions of UPS, components of the UPS.

Thirdly, the transformer, fourthly, the battery charger/rectification, blocks diagram, schematic diagrams and principle of operation of the UPS.

Finally, design and construction of the UPS, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

A machine has been defined as a device that helps in doing work easily and accurately when energy is applied. Also electrical energy is one of the most useful sources of energy for the operation of both industrial and household machines.

Therefore, electricity has been said to be an instrument for the industrialization and empowerment of man for better standard or living. Since most of the industrial and household machines are digitally operated when there is power failure, the commands (information) stored in their memory loss out, this makes their execution difficult and possible cause damage in the production activity.

This electric power failure is of critical concern in the operation of most industrial and household equipments (machines) such as data processing systems, health case equipment (machines), telecommunication links, etc. Therefore, since power outage is inevitable in Nigeria, Its damage to the smooth running of these digitally operated device can never be ignored.

Alternatively, a standby power supply such as automatic diesel/petrol generator set have been employed to check the problem, but due to high cost of installation and running of such generator sets, can only be afforded by organizations and few individuals.

Also, there are commercially available uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), as medium and low capacity standby power supply. Therefore there is a need for the production of such uninterruptible power supply with readily available and low cost components. Hence the main focus of this project is to design and construct a UPS by converting D. C. power into A.C. power using inverters. Switching device are the simplest form of inverters and are used here because of their higher efficiency, smaller size and weight. There are other methods of converting D.C. Such as converting machinery like synchronous rotary converters, solid state converters, and motor generator sets, etc.

The common applications of inverters are:

  1. They are use to provide uninterruptible power supply to computers.
  2. Used in providing emergency lighting whenever there is power failure from the supply authority.
  3. Used in food processing industries where short interruption of power may spoil foodstuff.
  4. Used in speed control of induction motors.

1.1 History And Development Of Ups

The development of an uninterruptible power supply system paralleled the increase dependence of the society on electric power to provide motive power and intelligence for all aspects for modern life. These systems have become necessary since the 1920’s in areas of medical and telecommunication applications standby power supply systems set dates in 1920 with the work of Admiral Byrd which was extensively used in medical institutions. Gasoline and diesel engines was used during the world war II, as well as in microwave communication in 1955 and this was developed by N.B Tharp.

In the late 1950’s J.J Gano developed the storage battery for powering telephone central office, also the start of the computer age saw the development of the UPS using motor generator. In the area of modern UPS, the works scientist Dr. J.D. Standler and Engr. Libert whose works on the solid state UPS cannot be overlooked. Therefore as long as the need for the solution of the problem of public power failure continues, the need for the modification of the UPS will constantly continue.


1.2 Aims And Objectives Of The Project

The aim and objective of the design and construction of an uninterruptible power supply follows. Firstly, the primitive concern of providing quality and adequate power to sensitive devices like the medical faculties, data processing and communication centres.

Secondly, this work aim at the satisfaction of the statement of Alexander Kusko in his book Emergency/standby power system, that as the quest for the solution of the problem of public power failure continues, the need for the modification of the UPS will constantly be continued; by this we hereby aimed at modifying the already existing UPS.


Chapter Four


4.0 Problem Encountered And Solution

During the design and construction of the UPS, we encountered little problems in the area of components used. Examples were the use of bipolar junction transistor, which initially dissipates more power thereby heating up the circuit rapidly which in turn burns the configuration. But this problem was solves by the replacement of the BJT with a MOSFET, which dissipates less power and has faster switching respond.


4.1 Conclusion

An uninterruptible power supply system has been successfully designed and constructed. The range of power output is 0 – 2000W. The project constructed was able to invert dc output from the battery when there was failure as the relay switches almost immediately to the battery bank and upon that the battery banks were being charged by the rectifier from an ac line when there was power supply. The power from NEPA was fed into the device and thus power is passed to the battery. The whole system depends on the battery when the energy in the battery is used up, the device backs up, due to this a need for a recharging circuit was made so as to replace the loss charges at all times.

The battery dc was passed through a transistor, which amplifies the dc signal. Due to the need for a.c line of 50Hz, an astable multivibrator oscillator or IC – type multivibrator oscillator was used to generate the required frequency.

The oscillator inverts the d.c to a.c and the inverted a.c is passed through power switching device. This switching element plays the role of driving the step-up transformer to give an amplifier output of 240V, 50Hz and an output of 2000W as required by the project.

The whole process is hinged on a multi-contact relay that automatically controls the whole system during power on from NEPA as well as power failure from NEPA. Thus, with these relays, when there is power failure from source, the device will automatically supply stored power from the battery to the load.

We hereby conclude that the designed work is still subject to modification, as we believed that any student willing to construct this type of circuit in future will still tremendously add to the modification of the work of UPS.


4.2 Recommendation

Comparing the designed work with the standby need of power supply, we hereby recommend that the duration for the operation of the uninterruptible power supply to load is normally short so as such, the need for a prolonging duration of supply can be enhanced by the use of external or larger battery bank or charge bank that will be able to supply power for a longer time.


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