Project Report On Microcontroller Based Smoke Detector

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project Report On Microcontroller Based Smoke Detector


The microcontroller smoke detector is a system designed to provide security level in areas that requires high accuracy of precaution against fire outbreak, in an industry, commercial buildings and even domestic homes.

This project uses 89s52 microproecessor as it major component. This microprocessor is the central processing unit of the project, it is configured into the design and function of a microchip which is some times refers to as logic chip. The microprocessor IC stores programmes and has general types of memory example on-chip memory, which hold actual programme that is, to be run this IC has a memory capacity of 8 kilobytes. The programmes are burned into it, as ROM or EPROM it programme may equally be stored via on external ROM.

When the detector senses the present of smoke which creates a dark shadow, it alert the microcontroller which is the C.P.U, causing on alarm and equally fetching programme which are stored and executing them by making the light emitting Diode to display noticeable character for any security officer, in order to find any fast and immediate solution.

Chapter One


1.0 The Background

In past decade there have been cases of fire outbreak, in our commercial building domestic houses and our industries. Possible causes of fire out break are as a result of faulty electrical installations, carelessness over faulty maintenance and lack of oventations on fore outbreak. The reason while fire in always able to engulf our household or industry are as a result of poor security system or bad (faulty) fire security system. Owning to all these, it is of a paramount important to include a smoke detector in our security system which I do advice should also be in co-operated with a microcontroller display unit.

This project design is the simple use to display visible write up on the screen a with on alarm which simultaneously alert the security officer the present of smoke, either from any electrical equipment, connection or any burning material, needed to be extinguished before resulting to a fire outbreak. The major component used in this design are the 89s5$ microprocessor, crystal oscillator, Electronic switches light emitting diodes, IC decoders and sensor. Some other common and readily available component like the transformer is very necessary as regards to power supply.

The micro-process is the central processing unit in the project. It helps to fetch, programme form it memory, and execute the action.

A dot matrix display made of light emitting diode (LED) is use to display the information contained in the programme. The information display is in a form that can be understood by the uses or operator.

1.1 The Aims And Objectives Of The Project

For a security system with various alarm outfit and various security detectives device. These devices may detect various faults according to their function, and might also cause alarm to alert the security personnel. But the simultaneous alarm alert, may result to Unisome and Chios in a bid to differentiate sound differences and what type of fault was detected.

This puzzles led to the use of a microcontroller in combination of a smoke detector. Now with the help of this new development, a screen display is design and actualized via construction process to achieve this aim. By the display on the screen the security personnel can easily sort-out what type of detector are alerting him or her, and which of the detected fault needed fast response.

1.2 Project Outline

The design and construction of a microcontroller smoke detector is divided into four major section which are the regulated power supply, the control section, the display section and the smoke detector unit.

  1. The regulated power supply was use to power the circuit, it was regulated because digital IC’s were involved in the circuit and these digital IC’S work on a regulated power supply.
  2. The control section is where the processor involved in this design was control. It includes the 89s52 microprocessor and crystal oscillator. The 89s52 control the programme code is the Rom and other component around it. The crystal is used by the 89s52 to synchronize it operation.
  3. The screen which we use in this project was the dot matrix display system this involve the arrangement of LED is Rows and column by considering the cathode and anode connection, to achieve organized display of character as programmes are decoded by the decade IC’s and forms character on the screen.
  4. The smoke detection plays an important function because it acts as a switch to the entire system. It senses smoke with the help of the LDR light dependent resistor and the LM324 IC comparator to switch the microcontroller to start booting up and executing it programmes.

Chapter Five

5.1 Conclusion and Recommendation

Electronic industry is growing at a fast rate many different electronics system have been developing over the years. However, security monitoring system through not yet common in this pent of the world, has a very safe place in this rapid growing industry and will remain there for a very long time. This is as a result of the fact that it can be use anywhere as a surveillances system with proper installation and maintenance; it yields a high degree of efficiency in protecting a given area from five out break. This device is suitable for many applications, banks, hospital, oil companies or valuable handling organization will find it very suitable for their security operations.

5.2 Problems Encountered

  1. Inconsistent supply of power from (PHCN) power holding company of Nigeria.
  2. Running around from one electronic store to the other in search of components and this could take days to accomplish.
  3. The difference in the name of components between the dealers and us the students.
  4. The smoke detector was difficult to achieve a standard construction that would stand the test of time and it efficiency.
  5. The molding of desired plastic material for better design casing part ability was difficult due to non-availability of molding industries as a result of this wood transparent plastic glass was use to achieve our packaging.

5.3 Precautions

Precautions were taken in both construction techniques and during the testing period. These precautions were taken as follows:

  1. The design was first carried out in a bread board, tested and verified before transferring it to the Vero board. This was to ensure reduced component damage.
  2. At soldering stage cautions were taken to avoid direct heating of the electronic component used, to avoid damage as a result heat.
  3. During the re-designing or transferring process care was taken while scraping off portion of the coated thin film to ensure that there the components connected.
  4. Precaution was also taken during the testing of the programme stored in the microcontroller to avoid the system not working properly.

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