Fault Level Calculation Of Eastern Part Of Nigeria 330Kv Grid Network Using NEPLAN
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This project is dedicated to the Almighty God for his guidance; protection and inspiration in the course of making this project a success.
I recognize and appreciate those whose contributions both in cash and in kind, led to the success of this work and for this i will not fail to mention my parents (Mr. & Mrs. J.O. Okoro), sponsors, lecturers, brothers and sisters as well as my friends. I believe they will cherish their commitments so far as they fling through the pages of this work.
I also acknowledge my supervisor Engr. Ugorji for his advice, guidance and directives throughout this project.
Fault in electrical power system can occur as a result of three phase short circuit, single line to ground, two phase to ground short circuit and line to line fault. These very faults, definitely, give rise to fault current.
Fault level calculation studies in power system, is required to know the fault currents in other to provide for necessary information for the selection of switch gears, circuit breakers, setting of relays and stability system operation.
NEPLAN (Network Planning) in power system analysis is software developed by BCP (Bursorello + Cott + Partner) Switzerland used for system modeling and analysis.
Table Of Content
- Title page
- Approval Page
- Table of content
- 1.0 Introduction
- 1.1 Definition of fault
- 1.2 Classification of faults
- 1.3 Types of fault
- 1.4 Reasons for carrying out fault analysis
- 2.0 Literature Review
- 2.1 Modeling of Transmission line
- 2.2 Short Transmission line
- 2.3 Long Transmission line
- 2.4 Medium Transmission line
- 2.5 Representation of Transmission line
- 2.6 Per unit system
- 3.0 Introduction to NEPLAN
- 3.1 Eastern grid network
- 3.2 330KV Transmission line parameters of Double & Single circuit
- 3.3 Transmission line description (Eastern)
- 3.4 Types of conductors used in Transmission line
- 3.5 Types of tower design
- 3.6 Components that make up the project
- 3.7 Eastern Network simulation
- 3.8 Result Analysis
- 4.0 Nigeria National Grid Network
- 4.1 Generator data for Eastern grid
- 4.2 Power system parameters
- 4.3 Methods of solving unbalancing fault
- 4.4 Sources of fault power
- 4.5 Basic requirements protection system
- 5.0 Recommendation / Conclusion
An electric power system is made up of generators, transformers, Transmission line and consumer equipment (loads). The system must be protected against the flow of heavy short-circuit currents which can cause permanent damage to the major equipments. And this is achieved by disconnecting the faulty section of the system by means of circuit breakers, switch gears, isolators and protective relays.
The need to know the maximum short-circuit current that can occur at the different points of the system in order that the breakers selected are adequate to withstand the current and operate successfully, to cut the faulty section, and also in order that the protective relays may be selected for correct operation. The design of machines, bus bars, isolators, circuit breakers etc is based on the consideration of normal and short-circuits currents.
It is also important to be able to calculate approximately at least the size of the protective reactors which must be inserted in the system to limit the short circuit current to a value which can be handled by the circuit breakers.
The short-circuit current is an A.C system are determined mainly by the reactance of the alternators, transformers, and lines up to fault in the case of phase-to-phase faults. When the fault is between phase and earth, the resistance of the path plays an important role in limiting the current.
The rupturing capacities of a circuit breakers are based on the symmetrical short-circuit current which is the most simple calculation among all types of short-circuits. However, for determination of setting of relays, it is absolutely necessary to know fault current due to unsymmetrical fault condition for which knowledge of symmetrical components etc is required.
1.1 Definition Of Fault
A fault in an electrical equipment/apparatus is defined as a defect in the electrical circuit to which current is diverted from the intended part.
Also fault is said to have occurred when a system fails to perform the required function at a given time. A fault occurs when two or more conductors that normally operate with a potential difference come in contact with each other or when a conductor that supposed to be continuous losses its continuity.
The nature of a fault simply implies any abnormal condition which causes a reduction to the basic insulation strength between phases conductors or between phases conductors and earth or any earthed screen surrounding the conductors. The reduction of insulation strength is not considered as a fault until it creates some effect on the system i.e, until it results either in excessive current or in between conductor and earth to a value below that of the lowest impedance normal to the circuit.
The possibility of occurrence of abnormal condition or failure is more on the power line.
1.2 Classification Of Faults
Balanced Or Symmetrical Faults
This is a kind of fault that gives rise to symmetrical fault current. In this type of fault, current in three phases are equal and have 120o displacement
Example, when all the three phase of conductors of a three phase line are brought together simultaneously into a short-circuit condition.
Unbalanced Or Unsymmetrical Fault
This is also another type of fault in a power system that gives rise to unsymmetrical fault current. In this case, the line current is unequal and the displacement is unequal.
IY ? IB ? IB
Examples of unbalanced fault.
1. A single line to ground
1.3 Types Of Fault
- Three Phase Short-circuit Fault:This type of fault results due to breakdown of insulation between all the three phases or when there is a bridge involving all the three phases at a time. Its occurrence is 2 to 3 percent.
- Single Phase to ground (L-G) short-circuit fault:This is caused as a result of breakdown of insulation between one of the phases and earth. Its occurrence is 70 percent.
- Phase to ground (L-L-G) short-circuit fault:Due to breakdown of insulation between either of the two phases and earth. Its occurrence in power network is 10 percent.
- Phase to Phase (L-L) short-circuit fault:This is a type of short-circuit fault that occur due to the breakdown of insulation between either of the two phases, its occurrence is 15%.
1.4 Reasons For Carrying Out Fault Analysis In The Power System
One of the reasons for carrying out fault analysis in power system is to know the maximum short-circuit current that can occur at different points of a system in order to select a circuit breaker that can adequately withstand the current and operate successfully to cut-off fault section.
The design of machine bus-bars, isolators, circuit breaker etc. is based on the consideration of normal and short-circuit current.
Also to know the size of protective reactor while must be inserted in the system to limit the short-circuit current to a value which can be handled by the circuit breaker or protective devices.
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The structure of a good project work
Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.
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Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.
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