Contingency Analysis Of The Eastern Part Of Nigeria Grid Network (330Kv)

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


The contingency analysis of the Eastern part of Nigeria Grid Network is considered in the paper (330kv).
A contingency is a “what if” which means that contingency analysis is the loss or failure of a small part o the power system e.g a transmission line or the loss of failure of individual equipment such as a generator or transformer. This is also called an unplanned “outage”.
This study is used to

  1. Evaluate the effects and
  2. Calculate any overloads, resulting from each outage event

Contingency analysis is essentially a preview analysis tool. It simulates and quantifies the results of problems that could occur in the power system in the immediate future.

Contingency analysis is used as a study tool for the off-line analysis of contingency events, as an on-line tool to show operators what would be the effects of future outages. This allows the operators to be better prepared to react to outages by using pre-planned recovery scenarios.

The likely things that cause overlead and other problems that can occur due to contingency:

  1. Unplanned opening of a circuit breaker at the substation
  2. Equipment failure
  3. Transmission line loss
  4. Voltage magnitude violation at modes (positively/negatively)
  5. System frequency deviation from the nominal value.

The early chapter deals with the introduction and literature review.

The later chapters deal with system methodology and contingency analysis process, results and use as well as the conclusion and references.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

Chapter Three

3.0 Description of Grid Network in the eastern part of Nigeria.

  • 3.1 Modelling of power system components.
  • 3.2 Transmission line modeling and data/desription
  • 3.3 Short, medium and long line transmission modeling
  • 3.4 Transformer modeling
  • 3.5 Tap changing transformer
  • 3.5.1 On – load tap changing transformer
  • 3.5.2 Off – load tap changing transformer
  • 3.6 Number of Busbars and types
  • 3.7 Types of conductors

Chapter Four

4.0 Conclusion Statement

  • 4.1 Analytical summary
  • 4.2 Recommendation
  • 4.3 References

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

All about electrical engineering is; generation, transmission and distribution. The generated energy must be transmitted via transformers and cables as well as distributed to end user’s at required voltage level. Because of steady supply, network stability become issue of prime importance in this current era of electricity deregulation to network operators.

From the word “contingency” which means an event or situation that might happen in the future and could cause problems. Therefore a contingency is an unexpected, but reasonably, likely sudden change in the power system, such as loss of a transmission line, generator, transformer, and opening of a circuit breaker in a transmitting substation in the power system.

The purpose of contingency analysis is to analyze the power system in order to identify the overloads and problems that can occur due to a contingency.

The importance of contingency analysis are by analyzing the effects of contingency events in advance, problems and unstable situations can be identified, critical configurations can be applied, and corrective actions can be planned.
A power system is secure when it can withstand the loss of one or more elements and still continue operation without major problems.

An elements of a power system usually refers to its electrical equipment e.g generator, transformer, transmission line, circuit breakers, etc. Element can also refer to the wider context of a group of device that together constitute an outage such as a BUSBAR which effectively goes out of service if one or more breakers do not operate correctly.

An outage is the removal of equipment from service. It can be planned and intentional ie, due to maintenance, or unplanned ie, due to failure.

Chapter Four

4.0 Conclusion Statement

The various causes and effects of contingency in the eastern part grid transmission network have been examined in this study.

The contingency in the network are due to transmission line loss and overloads, overload of transformers or generator and loss, opening of circuit breakers at transmitting substation. The analysis shows that the network need to be properly planned, maintained and protected to ensure safety and security service of the network.

4.1 Analytical Summary Of Contingencies

Transmission line loss contingency (Benin – Onitsha)

Loss of transmission line is caused by vandalism and other criminal vices.

From Benin to Onitsha transmission line, there is a double circuit (line 1 and 2). So it there is a transmission line loss, one of the remaining line will continue to serve, but there will be half supply of power which will lead to load shedding thereby causing frequency power outages.

Overloading of transmission lines

Any disturbance causing an overloading of transmission line creates an operational situation which must b quickly controlled. Tripping of the line causes cascading tripping of lines, thus leads to system breakup.

In the eastern part grid network, it is observed that the overloading of transmission lines is because transmission capability was not expanded with the increasing megawatt (MW) added to the transmission grid network.

Overloading of transmission lines cause load shedding which allows the line current to be reduced. It also affects the reactive power balance of the transmission line or power network

Opening of circuit break

This is an electrical device that allows line to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. Also used o interrupt any short circuit or overload currents that may occur on the network.

On the system, it is observed that due to fault the system circuit breakers open for clearance and a temporary outage of power is associated with it.

4.2 Recommendation

In other to reduce contingency in the eastern part transmission network, the following must be given due attention.

  1. Proper study should b carried out to identify all weak areas in the network with a view to strengthen the network
  2. Planned and routine maintenance should be carried out on the network to reduce the incident of collapsed spans.
  3. All the breakdown generators should be revived to achieve the installed capacity hence reduce overloads of transmission lines and transformers.
  4. More transmitting stations should be introduced into the network to assist in the reduction of long lines and improve the voltage profiles of the network.
  5. Vigilant groups to be introduced to guide against vandalisation which constitute a major setback in the network.

Contingency Analysis Of The Eastern Part Of Nigeria Grid Network (330Kv)

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