Construction Of F.M Transmitter
A frequency modulated(Fm) transmitted is an electronic device that modulates, amplifies, Filters and possibly encodes Incoming information signal and broadcasts it over the channel for transmission. In a transmitter, the information modulates the carrier i.e. is super imposed on a high frequency sine wave.
Frequency modulation has several advantages over the amplitude modulation (AM) system used in the alternate form of radio broadcasting. The most important of these advantages is that an FM system has greater freedom from interference and static.
FM broadcasting stations can be operated in the very high frequency (VHF) bands at which AM interference is frequently severe. Commercial FM radio stations are assigned frequency between 88 and 108MHZ and will be the intended range of transmission.
The construction is however aimed at producing portable, cheaper and safe operating FM transmitter system.
- Chapter one will give a background to frequency modulation.
- Chapter two is the literature review
- Chapter three presents the electronic components and their characteristics.
- Chapter four will show the transmitter building block, analysis of the finished construction and its performance.
- Chapter five is the Discussion, summary, Recommendation/Conclusion and references.
Table Of Contents
- Title page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Technical background
- 1.2 Objectives of the project
- 1.3 frequency modulation
- 1.4 Technical terms definition
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Electronic Components and their characteristic
- 3.0.1 Microphone
- 3.0.2 Resistors
- 3.0.3 Capacitors
- 3.0.4 Inductor
- 3.0.5 Transistor
- 3.0.6 Low voltage audio power amplifier
4.0 Operation, Analysis of Finished Construction and Performance
- 4.1 Overview of Block diagram
- 4.2 Overall efficiency of the transmitter
- 4.3 Testing
- 4.4 F.M Performance
- 5.0 Discussions
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusions
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 References
A frequency modulated (fm) transmitter is an electronic circuit designed to modulate, amplify, filter and possibly encode incoming information signal to make it suitable for transmission over a channel.
A message arriving from the information source must be in electrical nature before it will be suitable for immediate transmission. Even then, a lot of work must be done to make such message suitable.
The crowding in the AM broadcasting band and the inability of standard AM receivers to eliminate noise, has made the total fidelity of standard stations purposely limited. Fm does not have these drawback and therefore can be used to transmit music, reproducing the original performance with a degree of fidelity that cannot be reached on AM bands. Fm stereophonic broadcasting has drawn increasing numbers of listeners to popular as well as classical music, so that commercial fm stations draw higher audience rating than AM stations.
This material contains electrical diagrams, circuits, illustrations and more (Very detailed)
The construction was miniature, low power and portable. The parts are very common and the circuit is very easily constructed.
The circuit was first constructed on the braid board to know how it looks like before being transferred unto a vero board. All that has to be adhered to was to keep the leads short and the circuitry compact as much as possible. It was than soldered adhering to the basic rules of soldering which includes avoiding the application of too much heat in order not to damage the components. Jumpers were used where necessary to link components together and the work was put in a plastic casing.
Effective range of the transmitter in a house hold environment is 15 metres which makes the transmitter ideal in aiding tourist or as a tour guide within a densely packed room. The antenna co-axial extension leads helps in raising the antenna over people head and transmitting to their FM receivers.
The limitation of the transmitter is the fact that it does not have constant frequency and it is easily obstructed by a barrier. It also has a low range.
FM transmitter has three functions, first the transmitter generates the signal of the correct frequency at a desired point in the spectrum. Second it must provide some form of modulation that causes the information signal to modify the signal. Third, it must provide amplification to ensure that the signal level is high enough so that it will carry over the desired distance.
Typically FM offers significant benefit over AM in that it offers better noise immunity, it rejects interfering signal and provides better transmitter efficiency.
A low power FM transmitter was constructed. To approach a project like this, a good grounding in the basics of communication theory and analogue design must be achieved. To start off, looking at the block diagram of the transmitter was a must even is it seems abstract and obscure, the underlying meaning of each block can be well understood which is what the project challenging and rewarding.
The design used for this project is essentially simple and its simplicity partly brings it down when it comes to the overall reliable performance.
After learning from this project, I will suggest that the oscillator be followed with a buffer amplifier to reduce the effect of the load changes and improve its performance.
Also students of telecommunications option should be encouraged to build this kind of project in their practicals by making the components available to them.
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