The Socio-Economic Impact Of The Use Of Vigilante Groups On Security Management (A Case Study Of Ihiagwa, Autonomous Community, Imo State)

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Criminology And Security Studies

Criminology And Security Studies


Dedication


First of all, I dedicate this work to the Almighty God for His infinite mercy to the possibility of this project and for
His guidance and protection towards me during this my academic pursuit.

I also dedicate this work to my lovely parents Mr. & Mrs. B.C.N. Duru for the financial support and encouragement to ensuring that I have a sound academic up bring in life.


Acknowledgement


I sincerely wish to acknowledge the contributions and assistance rendered me by the following people which brought this project work to a successful completion.

I express my sincere gratitude to Rev. Dr. Nwadiaro ECC my project supervisor, who inspite his crowded schedule tirelessly took the pain of going through my work scrupulously and making valuable contributions where necessary, which brought this work to the perfect piece it is.

I also wish to appreciate and thank my darling husband Mr. Justin Effiong who directed me, gave all the needed financial, moral and spiritual support during my study period.

My gratitude is due to my lovely children:Precious Justin Effiong, Prudence Justin Effiong, Promise Justin Effiong, Princewill Justin Effiong and Pearl Justin Effiong for their cooperation throughout my study period.

Finally, I wish to thank the Almighty God for his protection, provision, inspiration and guidance throughout the period of my studies.

Effiong Gloria Barasua 


Abstract


This study was carried out in four villages in Ihiagwa autonomous community to determine the socio-economic impact of the use of vigilante in security management. 120 people were interviewed with the structured questionnaire which comprised residents of the community and members of the vigilante group.

Data was analyzed and presented using frequency distribution, percentage and tables. Empirical findings from the study show that all the villages surveyed had a functional vigilante group which provided security services.

The study also revealed that the absence of vigilante in the past resulted in a high rate of criminal activities in the community. It also showed that if the vigilante groups are properly empowered they would provide better security services.

In view of the findings, community leaders and the government are advised to encourage the formation of more vigilante groups to help in security management at the community levels.


Table of Content


  • Title page
  • Declaration page
  • Certification
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • List of table
  • Abstract

Chapter One – Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Hypothesis/Research questions
  • 1.3.1 Hypothesis
  • 1.4 Purpose of the study
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope of the study
  • 1.7 Definition of terms

Chapter Two – Review Of Literature

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1.1 Security situation in the globe especially in Nigeria
  • 2.1.2 Meaning of security threat
  • 2.1.3 Types of security threat
  • 2.1.4 The various security groups in Nigeria offering security services.
  • 2.1.5 The importance of security
  • 2.1.6 The various security groups in pre-colonial Nigeria
  • 2.1.7 The various security groups in colonial and post-colonial Nigeria
  • 2.1.8 The organization of vigilante groups for effective performance.
  • 2.1.9 The mode of operation of vigilante groups
  • 2.1.10 Instruments used
  • 2.1.11 Effects of vigilante group in crime reduction
  • 2.1.12 The socio-economic impact on the use of vigilante
  • 2.1.13 Residents perception towards the use of vigilante
  • 2.1.14 Recommendations on how to make the use of the vigilante more effective
  • 2.2 Theoretical framework
  • 2.2.1 Idealism
  • 2.2.2 Realism
  • 2.2.3 Pluralism
  • 2.2.4 Marxism
  • 2.2.5 Social constructivism
  • 2.2.6 Human security

Chapter Three – Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of study
  • 3.2 Study Area
  • 3.3 Population of the study
  • 3.4 Sample size
  • 3.5 Sampling techniques
  • 3.6 Data collection techniques
  • 3.7 Instrumentation
  • 3.8 Validation of the instrument
  • 3.9 Administration of instrument
  • 3.10 Data Analysis technique
  • 3.11 Limitation of the study

Chapter Four – Results, Analysis And Findings

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five – Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Appendix A – Questionnaire

List Of Tables


Table Title

  • 4.0 Distribution of questionnaire returned
  • 4.1 Sex distribution of respondents
  • 4.2 Age distribution of respondent
  • 4.3 Marital status of respondents
  • 4.4 Religious Affiliation of respondents
  • 4.5 Educational qualification of respondents
  • 4.6 Occupational status of respondents
  • 4.7 Security challenges faced in the community
  • 4.8 Existence of vigilante group in the community
  • 4.9 Help received from vigilante group
  • 4.10 Areas were help was received from vigilante
  • 4.11 Payment of vigilante services
  • 4.12 The vigilante group has helped in curbing crime
  • 4.13 Crime rate as at the time there was no vigilante
  • 4.14 Vigilante group membership is voluntary
  • 4.15 Criminal activities that led to the formation of the vigilante group.
  • 4.16 Vigilante group has helped in curbing crime rate in community
  • 4.17 Vigilante group has dedicated lines through which they can be reached
  • 4.18 Instruments used by vigilante group in apprehending criminals.
  • 4.19 Patrol vehicles used
  • 4.20 Members of vigilante are paid for services rendered
  • 4.21 Sources of fund for vigilante group
  • 4.22 Qualification for joining vigilante group
  • 4.23 Methods of enforcing security in community by vigilante members
  • 4.24 Ways culprits are dealt with when apprehended
  • 4.25 Time of the day service is rendered
  • 4.26 Challenges encountered as a vigilante
  • 4.27 Calculating data for hypothesis

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction


1.1 Background Of The Study

A layman definition of security is the protection of life and property of a person. The word security emanated from the Greek word se-cura, meaning “to be in a state of no fear”. The concept of security has undergone a transition conceptualization to a non-traditional meaning. Traditionally, security management was the unilateral function of the state especially if we consider the intellectual view(s) of some political theorist like Thomas Hobbes (1962) who argued that the essence of a state is to guarantee the security of lives and property and ensure law and order through its political sovereignty and monopoly of violence, which the state applies to engender strict conformity and compliance to state laws by the people for effective security management.

But in contemporary times, the definition of security goes beyond the traditional military ways of protecting the state against internal and external aggression. The fact is that since the end of the cold war, security management has assumed a new dimension.

External threat of security resulting from international hostilities and aggression that characterized the cold war era, has been replaced with non traditional security, threat like information warfare, drug trafficking, nuclear pollutions, kidnapping, insurgency, corruption, human trafficking, terrorism and so forth.

Now the government has realized that they can no longer monopolize the business of security in the local domain as well as the world at large. Here in Nigeria, the agencies in charge of security management which comprises of the police, military, civil defence and so forth has failed woefully due to corruption, insufficient numbers of personnel and so on. As a result of this failure we have recognized that traditional policing in the form of vigilantism is necessary and beneficial to the effective management of security. With the government recognizing the vigilante groups and empowering them to help in crime management in their various communities, crime will not only be prevented, but there will be peace and security.

Since the members of the various vigilante groups are members of the community who are acquainted with the people, understand the culture of the people, grew up knowing the norms of their communities, and also the terrain, that is they know the nook and crannies of their communities, so that it will be difficult for an offender to hide. With the vigilante groups in charge, security will be guaranteed at the community levels while the police will have the time to do the wider work of National policing.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

With the increase in population in Ihiagwa occasioned by the presence of two Federal Institutions:Federal University of Technology Owerri (FUTO) and Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri in nearby communities, the issue of security has become a great challenge. There is a gradual rise in the incidence of armed robbery, house breaking, kidnapping, rape, cultism, theft, fraud, bag snatching and so forth. As a result of these, residents of the community now live in fear as it is uncertain who will be the next victim. It is widely acknowledged that the police alone cannot effectively police every section of the country in view of the limited number of their personnel, coupled with the fact that they are poorly equipped.

The Scenario suggests the need for a community based security system for tackling security problem. This is based on the premise that security services will be much more effective if provided by people within the community as they are well acquainted with the terrain and people within their area of operation. It therefore presupposes that there is dare need of the use of control groups performed from the community to help curb the insecurity surge. This therefore tries to look into the use of vigilante in helping the police and the community solve insecurity challenge. To examine if the vigilante would provide effective security service.


1.3 Hypothesis / Research Questions

1.3.1 Hypothesis

The activities of vigilante has significantly improved security in Ihiagwa community.

1.3.2 Research Questions
  1. What is the security situation in Ihiagwa
  2. Who are the different vigilante groups offering security services in the study area.
  3. How are the vigilante groups organized to effectively carry out their work.
  4. What impact has the use of vigilante made social economically?
  5. What recommendations can be made concerning the use of vigilante?

1.4 Purpose Of The Study

  1. To describe the security situation in Ihiagwa.
  2. To identify vigilante groups offering security services in Ihiagwa
  3. To examine the mode of operation of vigilante groups in the study area.
  4. To ascertain the socio-economic impact on the use of vigilante.
  5. To ascertain residents perception towards the use of vigilante groups in maintaining security.
  6. To make recommendation on how to make the use of vigilante more effective in security management.

1.5 Significance Of The Study

A) Theoretically

This study will serve as a veritable material for those who want to conduct research on security related issues.

B) Practically

This study is expected to provide relevant information to voluntary security agencies in community based security management. It will also assist policy makers in formulating policies on community based security issues.


1.6 Scope Of The Study

This research limits itself to the socio-economic impact on the use of vigilante in security management. Its scope will be limited to Ihiagwa autonomous community in Imo state.

The town Ihiagwa is organized into eight villages namely; Iriamogu, Ibuzo, Nnkaramochie, Umuezeawula, Umuelem, Umuchima. Mboke and Akulumu Okwo villages. However, this research shall be carried out in four villages out of the eight villages due to the large size of our population of study. The four villages are Umuelem, Mboke, Umuchima and Ibuzo villages.


1.7 Definition Of Terms

Al Shabab:

A terrorist group in Somalia.

Aligned:

To declare support for somebody or something you represent, a person group.

Anthropogenic factor:

This means caused by humans (anthropogenic degradation of the environment)

Assassination:

The term usually involves a target killing of any political leaders or any other person for ideological or political or military or even economic reasons.

Assurance:

This is the level of guarantee that a security system will behave as expected.

Armed robbery:

This is a type of robbery that involve the use of weapons.

Bag snatching:

This is the act of snatching a targets bag by a thief.

Berlin Wall:

Fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, Germany, but in 1961 to prevent East German citizens traveling to the West. Its demolition in 1989 marked the end of the cold war.

Blackmail:

This is the crime of threatening to reveal substantially true information about a person to the public, a family member or associates unless a demand made upon the victim is met.

Boko Haram:

A terrorist group in Nigeria

Chauvinism:

Unreasoning over-enthusiastic or aggressive patriotism.

Cold War Era:

Hostile but not violent communist western relations:the hostile yet non violent relations between former Soviet Union and the United States, and their respective allies from around 1946-1989.

Corruption:

This is the misuse of official powers for illegitimate private gains.

Counter measure:

A counter measures is a way to stop a treat from triggering a risk event.

Defence in depth:

This means never rely on a single security measure alone.

Domestic violence:

This is a form of violent crime in which a person carries out violence against another person within the same household.

Drug trafficking:

This is a global black market consisting of distribution and sale of illegal controlled drugs.

Extortion:

Is a criminal offence, which occurs when a person unlawfully obtains either money, property or services from a person, entity or institution through coercion.

Fraud:

The false representation of a matters of fact, whether by words or by conduct.

Hacker:

A person who use computer to gain unauthorized access to data.

Hijacking:

This is the unlawful seizure of an aircraft either by an individual or by a group.

Horrendous:

Dreadful sufficiently unpleasant, frightening or shocking as to provoke horror.

Human trafficking:

This is the practice of people being tricked, lured, coerced or otherwise removed from their home or country, and then forced to work with no or low payment or on terms which are highly exploitative.

Information warfare:

Is any action to deny, exploit, corrupt, or destroy the nay’s information and its function while protecting oneself against similar action.

Insurgency:

This is an armed struggle or rebetting aimed to challenge the sovereign power of a constituted authority.

Kidnapping:

The unlawful taking and carrying away of a human being by force and against his or her own will.

Nuclear pollution:

This are produced by nuclear explosions.

Popularization:

Cause division of opinion to make the difference between groups or ideas ever more clear cut and extremes, hardening re opposition between them or became ever more clear cut and extreme in the way.

Mechanism:

Ways that something works. The methods, procedures, or processes involved in the way something works or is done.

Rape:

Is the unlawful act of engaging another person in sexual intercourse through the use of physical force.

Refugees:

Somebody seeking safe place:somebody who seeks to take refuge in a foreign country, especially, to avoid war or persecution.

Risk:

A risk is a possible event which could cause a loss.

Security:

Is an all encompassing condition in which an individual citizens live in freedom, peace and safety; participate fully in the process of governance, enjoy the protection of fundamental rights, have access to resources and the basic necessities of life and inhabit an environment which is not detrimental to their health and well being.

Security threat:

This is anything that threatens the residents of a community or the things they value.

Sovereignty:

The authority of a state to govern itself or another state.

Surge:

A sudden or abrupt strong increase.

Taliban:

A fundamentalist Muslim movement whose militia took control of Afghanistan from early 1995, and in 1996 Kabul.

Terrorism:

This is extraordinary violence. It is intended to create massive fear and involves a planned attack for a purpose often against something or someone.

Theft:

The unlawful taking and carrying away of another person’s [property with intent of depriving the owner of property.

Threat:

This is a method of triggering a risk event that is dangerous.

Victim:

This is an identifiable person who has been harmed individually and directly by the perpetrator, rather that the whole society as a whole.

Vigilante:

A members of a volunteers committee organized to suppress and punish crime summarily.

Vulnerability:

Is a weakness in a target that can potentially be explored by security threat.

Westphalia period:

The period around 1815.


I bet you, the complete material is fully loaded. This is just an excerpt. The Material is in MS-Word Format which you can easily edit and is comprehensive for a complete research work for this topic


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How to nail it on the head during your project defence


You are through with writing that project. Now what?

You have found yourself at that point where you have to defend what you have written. Of course you have to stand in front of your supervisor and other literary personalities to prove that you know what you wrote in your project paper. Unfortunately, the more you think about it, the more it looks like you are about to face a legion. It is not a war. But the emotion of dread welling up inside of you makes it look like one. So now you are asking yourself questions.

  • How am I going to start?
  • I hope I will do well enough to get an A.

You really want to nail it, but you need to come to terms with exactly how to get everything in perfect control. Especially your emotions of fear that seem to make a wreck of you every time you think about public speaking.
So here is the deal. I want to help you avoid that feeling that would ruin your precious moment if you dare to let it. And we are going to do it together.

I am going to highlight some very important tips to help you get in control for you to be comfortable enough to move from that feeling of DREAD to CONFIDENT; and making an awesome Impression for that great rating your supervisors should be giving to you so freely.

Consider these tips as you prepare for your defence. We will be taking them one after the other so here we go.


Watch Your Body Language And Keep It Confident:

Can you tell that a person is falling apart if they look confident? … If I can second guess you rightly, am sure you answered no to that question. Remind yourself that you need to come out that way. Now this might seem like a huge big deal when you are dealing with the foreboding. Maintaining a poise of confidence is very important. So find your most comfortable position, sitting or standing and draw up your body. You must exude confidence. It is something you need to do for yourself. People can only see what you allow your body language to show. So you must endeavour to put that out. Remember the story of David and Goliath? … At the end of your defence day, you want to be David.


Dress In Your Most Comfortable And Impressive:

Am sure this one is a no brainer. However I must highlight that you choose comfortable pieces. You don’t want to look so good and yet look like you were forced to wear something that does not belong to you. It’s great to ensure that as impressive as your clothes are on you, that they are also very comfortable.


Speak With Authority:

Going hand to hand with that aura of confidence is your most powerful asset:your words. If you look that confident, your words must not come out like whimpers. To be able to pull this off, you definitely need to speak as deliberately as possible in expressing yourself. Let them also hear what they see.


Use, Your Gestures:

I have often found this to come to my rescue in dealing with shyness and conveying my confidence. Usually it gives you an edge to also drive home your point. You must, however, ensure that you do not over use it. It doesn’t mean that your hands should be flying all over the place. That would be absolutely unnecessary. If you do this well, after a while you will realize that you are not as self-conscious as you used to be at the very start. For most situations, it would have completely disappeared altogether; leaving a really confident you talking.


Have A Good Opening And Closing Line:

Make sure you have perfected a good opening line. You should also be armed with a good closing line too. Try and rehearse it to a friend. If for the first time you presented it, your friend does not say “wow, that’s beautiful” or something like that; just know you need to keep refining it until you get the perfect line. Both opening and closing lines will go a long way in how impressed your panel gets to rate you high.


Make Sure You Know Your Work:

Certainly you should understand how important it is to know your own work from start to finish. Not having in-depth knowledge of your own work is tantamount to a suicide mission. Why should you kill yourself?
When all is said and done, this is what you came to defend in the first place. You should know your work from A to Z.


Prepare For The Questions:

Now this part is truly essential. You must be sure you do not floor all the good work you did on your presentation by not answering correctly. You must pay attention to the questions you are asked to be sure you will give the right answer. Many people get it wrong at this stage and spoil their good presentation. When you do not understand any question do endeavour to ask the person to expatiate what they mean before you answer.


These tips are by no means exhaustive, but applying these tips will give you some necessary advantage you need for a great outcome. Of course that outcome would mean that you eventually earn all your points on this project.


The structure of a good project work


Undergraduate projects in Nigeria is a prerequisite for graduation amongst Nigerian tertiary students who will which to obtain bachelors degree in their respective courses of study such as accounting, banking and finance, business administration and a host of others. Writing an undergraduate project in Nigeria for final year students entails a lot both financially and otherwise. Being able to develop any final year project depends on getting a researchable topic whether it is Accounting Undergraduate project topics, Banking and Finance research topics or banking and finance project topics and materials and it all requires diligent hard work of students who are willing to develop best undergraduate projects in Nigeria and graduate in flying colors.

A typical Undergraduate project in Nigerian tertiary institutions can be said to be divided into five or six chapters depending on the format of the school and course of study which are


1. Introduction

The introduction of an undergraduate project states the main research problem and research argument. What precisely the study is all about and why it is important. It looks at the originality of the research work and how it will fill the gap in other studies. Justification for a research undergraduate topic should not be lengthy before it has been explicitly stated.

Below are the contents in chapter one of an undergraduate research project which includes;

  • Background of the study,
  • Statement of the problem,
  • Objectives or aims of the study,
  • The research questions,
  • Research hypothesis,
  • Significance of the study,
  • Scope of the study,
  • Limitations of the study and
  • Operational definition of terms.

2. Literature review

Literature review of any undergraduate research work, be it business administration project topics or Economics project topics just to mention a few is very critical to securing a high grade in one’s project work. The literature review of a research process uncovers what other writers have written about the student’s topic. A student’s undergraduate research work should include a discussion or review of what is known about the subject and how that knowledge was acquired. The review could conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications. The contents of the literature review are the theoretical review, conceptual framework, empirical review and summary of literature review.

3. Research Methodology

This section includes a description of the research methods used in the undergraduate research work such as the sample size, data collection methods, measurement instruments, research data analysis procedures and the population from which the sample was selected.  This section also describes the method used in selecting the sample or samples, validation and reliability of the instruments used in the research work. There are different research statistical techniques used in undergraduate research work such as SPSS, e-views etc.


4. Results & Discussion

This section presents and discusses the data analysis results used in an undergraduate research work, the results of each analysis is being summarized, tabulated, and then discussed for each research question.  Then for each research hypothesis, the statistical test of significance selected and applied to the data is briefly described, followed by a statement indicating whether the hypothesis was supported or not supported.  In presenting the result analyses/summary in an undergraduate project tables and figures and or graph are used to add clarity to the presentation.


5. Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations

This section summarizes the findings of the study in an easy to understand manner.  It also explains the practical implications of those findings, and points to recommended directions for future research in that area.


References:

This is where every source cited in the undergraduate research work is being included. Every undergraduate research work must be properly referenced for its authenticity.

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Samuel Obiora Blessed is the CEO and founder of Samphina Academy (samphina.com.ng) a.k.a Nigeria Students Media, the youngest engineering graduate of Federal Polytechnic Nekede in 2017 and the engine brain behind this great platform. He is the man behind the scene, filled with many potentials, a musician as well as a pro developer with the interest of Nigerian students at heart.

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