Design Of Digital Water Level Indicator And Automatic Pump Controlling System

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE

Project and Seminar Material For Electrical Electronics Engineering EEE


Automatic water level controller for both overhead and underground tank is designed to monitor the level of water in a tank. It displays the level of water and when it is at the lowest level; a pump is activated automatically to refill the tank. This study was carried out on the design of digital water level indicator and automatic pump controlling system. From the design, when the tank is filled to its maximum capacity, the pump is automatically de-energized. Several circuits are put together to ensure proper working of this design, and the block diagram includes the supply unit, the micro-processor unit, the sensor unit, the display unit and the pump drives unit.

The power unit is responsible for turning on the entire circuit. Some components are used to set up power unit and they include; a 15v step down transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a smoothening capacitor and a voltage regulator IC. The microprocessor (AT89S50) controls virtually all the actions carried out in this design. (AT89S50) is used in the design. The sensor unit is responsible for sensing the level of water and transfer the current position of water to the microprocessor. The display unit in the circuit is use to physically show the current position of water in the tank, the properties of seven segment display are been used.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One


  • Background
  • Aims and objective
  • Scope of the study
  • Constraints
  • Limitations of the project
  • Block diagram
  • Project report organization

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • Review
  • Sensors

Chapter Three


  • Project block diagram
  • Fluid level detector
  • System analysis
  • Stepdown transformer
  • Transformer circuit representation
  • Diodes
  • LED
  • Bridge rectifier
  • Voltage regulators
  • Resistors
  • Transistors
  • Relays
  • Piezo electric buzzer
  • Hardware component
  • Power supply unite
  • Display unite
  • Input interface design
  • Pump control segment
  • Input interface design
  • Sensor unit
  • Microprocessor unit

Chapter Four

Overview of the project

  • Software design
  • Software development
  • Translator
  • Linker/loader
  • Debugging
  • Development process
  • System control program steps
  • Program
  • System Testing and Implementation
  • Test plan and test data
  • Component test
  • System test
  • Transformer test
  • Other test
  • Experimented value vs. actual values
  • Performance evaluation
  • Packaging
  • Bill of engineering measurement and evaluation

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation

  • Conclusions
  • Recommendations
  • Reference

Chapter One



The project “automatic water level control with an automatic pump control system” is design to monitor the level of liquid in the tank. The system has an automatic pumping system attached to it so as to refill the tank once the liquid gets to the lower threshold, while offing the pump once the liquid gets to the higher threshold. Sustainability of available water resource in many reason of the word is now a dominant issue. This problem is quietly related to poor water allocation, inefficient use, and lack of adequate and integrated water management. Water is commonly used for agriculture, industry, and domestic consumption.

Therefore, efficient use and water monitoring are potential constraint for home or office water management system. Moreover, the common method of level control for home appliance is simply to start the feed pump at a low level and allow it to run until a higher water level is reached in the water tank. This water level control, controls monitor and maintain the water level in the overhead tank and ensures the continuous flow of water round the clock without the stress of going to switch the pump ON or OFF thereby saving time, energy, water, and prevent the pump from overworking Besides this, liquid level control systems are widely used for monitoring of liquid levels in reservoirs, silos. Proper monitoring is needed to ensure water sustainability is actually being reached with disbursement linked to sensing and automation, such programmatic approach entails microcontroller based automated water level sensing and controlling or using 555 timer IC.

Aims And Objectives

The goal or objectives of this study is the design of digital water level indicator and automatic pump controlling system. In this project sensors are place at different level of the tank and with the aid of this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the level of the liquid at any particular point in time, some of the objectives are

  1. To design an automatic water monitoring system
  2. To incorporate an interactive medium between the end user and the machine
  3. To prevent over labor of the pumping machine and prevent it from getting bad
  4. To avoid wastage of water
  5. Since the demand of electricity is very high, automatic water level control saves energy


Automatic water level monitor came into existence because of human error and inconsistence that is associated with manually operated water pumping machine. This is because it takes time for individual who is manually operating the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and this may cause water spillage and at times the individual might not know that the water level has drop so low until the tank is completely empty. This was the problem that leads to the development of the ideal of an automatic water level control and automatic pump short down.

Scope Of The Project

The project was design to automatically control the pump which ensures constant reserve of water in the reservoir. The scope of the design was keep concise and simple to in other not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable. The system does not have attached complex peripheral device which though impossible for the detail printable information has been excluded for reasons of affordability material of low range and less accurate performances as opposed to a well built automatic water pump was use d to achieve this aim, the automatic water level controller detect and control the water in the tank


The biggest setback experience during the course of this project is difficulties in finding the design of the project, secondly sourcing of material and component I used for the project were difficult to find like pump and buffer for programming

Limitations Of The Project

It is significant to know that this design is limited to 12v, 5amps electric pump and cannot be use to control industrial water pump above 5 amps

Block Diagram Overview

This project report writing is written is design in such a way that each chapter is related to the next as shown below


Project Report Organisation

The organization of this project report is well detailed and vast in its coverage it covers all the activities encountered during the research work.

The first chapter of this work took care of the introduction, aims and objective, scope, Justification and project report organization.

Chapter two highlight on literature review chapter three highlight on description of system and some of the component used were emphasized chapter four highlight on the system design and implementation, construction, testing and packaging of the pump.

Chapter five is all about the conclusions problem encountered recommendation and cost of the project.

Chapter Five

Conclusion And Recommendation


Going through the planning, flow process, design and software implementation, the system has been a tough one, the chapter one to four has actually tried as much as possible to explain vividly almost all (if not all) what is involved in the construction of this project. After the complete design of the system, the deviation between the expected result and the actual result was very close. The performance and efficiency was beyond expectation and from every ramification the design of automatic water controller was successful


During the course of designing this system there were series of problems encountered which came on the way of achieving the desired goals of this project. Some parts require re-designing and the software debugging also created a bit of the problem. After installing the pump, I noticed that the bucket was punched there by making water to leak, this was so challenging because it leads to me changing the tank which affected the budget. The study strongly recommends that government should set up industries for production of basic electronic component locally and establish research centers in each university to enable student have good sound practical knowledge on electronics component and their operation.

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