The Influence Of Prostate Cancer Awareness Campaigns On The Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Men

Medical and Health Science Project and Seminar Material

The Influence Of Prostate Cancer Awareness Campaigns On The Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Of Men


Abstract


This study was designed to investigate the influence of prostate cancer awareness campaigns on the knowledge, attitude and practices of men in SouthEastern Nigeria. The study employed the survey method of enquiry. The population of the study is 8,184,951 adult males in South-Eastern Nigeria. Five research questions guided the study. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The result of the data analysed revealed that the awareness and knowledge level on prostate cancer is relatively low among the men in South-Eastern Nigeria. Also, most information on prostate cancer were made known to the respondents by medical practitioners, however, those respondents that are exposed to the campaigns agreed that the campaigns have influenced their behavior positively. The study recommends that, awareness campaigns should be well structured both in English and the target audience local language to sufficiently and effectively convey the Prostate cancer campaign messages. Thus, the risks and the effects of the negative attitudes of men towards this campaigns must obviously be stated citing relevant examples. Also, campaign planners should involve the target audience/opinion leaders as participants in the campaign and too, lower the age for screening, so that early detection and prevention can be detected before it becomes late. There must always be emotional, physical and psychological appeal in the campaign messages.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Cancer is the growth disorder of cells in the body. Clinically, it can be defined as a large number (up to a hundred) of complex diseases that behave differently depending on the cell types from which they originate (William, Klug et.al, 2009, p.513). It is a genetic disease which is caused by mutation that has dominated other cells. In 2000, there were 1,220,100 reported cases of new cancers and 552,200 cancer deaths, indicating that roughly half of the people who develop cancer die from it (William, Klug, et.al, 2009, p.513). Statistics emanating from different health organisations and agencies around the world indicate that there are over 16 million new cases of cancer globally. This figure, according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2011report, is likely to double in 2020 (Chustecka, 2011, p.1). The rapid spread of this disease to a large extent is as a result of unawareness of its early symptoms which can be treated at its early stage when detected. Cells proliferation and metastasis nature of cancer has made it worst, this has resulted to its fast spread (cancer) in human body. Cell proliferation has to do with the division of cells into multiple units which can be said to be characterized by abnormal cell growth. On the other hand, metastasis is a process that allows these cells to spread to other parts of the body. The painful aspect of this disease is the ability to combine both cell proliferation and metastatic, this makes it more dangerous(Peter & George, 2002, p. 367).

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), in 2008 gave an estimate of over 681,000 and 512,400 new cases of cancer. These figures have increased to 1.4 million cases and 714 thousand deaths in 2010 (IARC Report 2010, p.3). The three most deadly human cancers are cancer of the lung, cancer of the colon and breast cancer. However, lung cancer is largely preventable, most of these cases result from smoking cigarettes (American Cancer Society, 2000, p. 13).

There are several causes of cancer, notable among them is the genetic factor. John Hill, an English physician in 1761 discovered that some tumors which can develop to cancer are caused by chemicals. Percival Pott, also made a similar discovery, he discovered that heavy snuff users are exposed to cancer. The 1966 Nobel Prize winner in medicine, Peyton, Rous discovered another cause of cancer. He found out that virus can cause cancer in human (Peter & George, 2002, p. 368).

Peter and George, (2002, p. 369), stated that, one out of every three children born will contract cancer at some time during their lives. While one-fourth of the male children and one-third of the female children will someday die of cancer. One begins to wonder what will be the fate of developing nations since the level of knowledge and awareness of this disease is relatively poor in these nations.

The most deadly disease in men is prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is a type of cancer which only affects men. It is the second leading cause of death in men. (World Cancer Report 2011, p.4). It occurs when tumor begins to grow in the prostate gland of male reproductive system. The word “prostate” means “one standing in front”. The prostate is so called because of its position, which is directly at the base of the bladder. It is estimated that 241,740 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in 2012 in America and out of this number, 28,170 patients will die from this disease (America Cancer Society, 2012, p. 23).

This is to show the low level of awareness and attention given to this disease that is gradually sending most men to the grave. Developing nations are seriously at disadvantage when it comes to knowledge.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Cancer cells are immortal, until they are uprooted by surgery or the body in which the cell resides dies before one can be said to be free from this disease. Due to the nature of this disease in man, several agencies and organizations such as United Bank for Africa have organized seminars and awareness campaigns on prostate cancer. On Saturday, June 18th 2011, UBA Foundation flagged off an awareness campaign against prostate cancer in Nigeria and Africa, all in a bid to fight cancer. Yet the current statistical data of mortality resulting from prostate cancer is in the increase. prostate cancer is the most pernicious disease in man, the second highest cause of death in man [Orarusi, 2012]. In spite of the Campaigns on cancer generally, death continues to be on the increase. In developingnations like Nigeria, death rate as a result of prostate cancer is very high and mostly among men that are 50 years and above. However, this high death rate can be linked to lack of public awareness, knowledge, late detection and diagnosis of the disease and the attitude of men about the disease. All these lead to the premise that prostate cancer is yet to be well understood by men. However, some people are of the view that any awareness campaign aimed at combating this deadly disease must have all it takes to increase knowledge, create positive attitude and enhance practice of screening methods among the audience. Except there is a significant change in the attitude of those exposed to prostate cancer campaigns, the entire exercise will amount to vanity. Based on this, this research therefore seeks to find out the extent to which men in south-eastern Nigeria are exposed to prostate cancer campaigns, their attitude and practice towards campaign messages on prevention, early detection and treatment of prostate cancer.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objectives of the study is to examine the influence of prostate cancer awareness campaigns on the knowledge, attitude and practices of men.

The specific objectives is as follows:

  1. To find out the awareness level of men in South-Eastern Nigeria about prostate cancer. •
  2. To ascertain the knowledge level of men in South-Eastern Nigeria on prostate cancer. •
  3. To identify the sources of information about prostate cancer. •
  4. To ascertain the attitude of men in SouthEastern Nigeria towards prostate cancer. •
  5. To find out if the campaign on prostate cancer have influenced the behaviour of men in the South-Eastern part of the country.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study:

  1. What is the level of awareness among men in south-eastern Nigeria about prostate cancer? •
  2. What is the level of knowledge of men in the south eastern Nigeria on the issue of prostate cancer? •
  3. What are the sources of information known to men in South-Eastern Nigeria on prostate cancer? •
  4. What is the attitude of men in South-Eastern Nigeria on prostate cancer?
  5. What influence has the campaigns on prostate cancer on the behaviour of men in SouthEastern Nigeria?

1.5 significance of the Study

This study will be significant to the ministry of health as it will be exposed to the need of creating an awareness on the issues of prostate cancer

The study will also be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study will find out the awareness level of men in South-Eastern Nigeria about prostate cancer. The study will also ascertain the knowledge level of men in South-Eastern Nigeria on prostate cancer. The study will further identify the sources of information about prostate cancer. More so, the study will ascertain the attitude of men in SouthEastern Nigeria towards prostate cancer. Lastly, the study will find out if the campaign on prostate cancer have influenced the behaviour of men in the South-Eastern part of the country. Hence, this study is delimited to south Eastern part of Nigeria.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


Chapter Five


Summary Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This chapter of the study is set aside to determine summarized the descriptive analysis done in the precious chapters. It also gives the conclusion and makes some recommendation.

In the summary the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prostate cancer awareness campaigns on the knowledge, attitude and practices of men. Specifically the study focused on find out the awareness level of men in South-Eastern Nigeria about prostate cancer, ascertain the knowledge level of men in South-Eastern Nigeria on prostate cancer, identify the sources of information about prostate cancer, ascertain the attitude of men in South Eastern Nigeria towards prostate cancer and find out if the campaign on prostate cancer have influenced the behaviour of men in the South-Eastern part of the country.

In order to carry out this study research questions formulated to guard the investigation. A total of476 male drawn from the five states in the region. The study was anchored on attitude change theory.


5.2 Conclusion

  1. In winding up this study, the findings indicate that, most men in south-eastern Nigeria are not aware of prostate cancer awareness campaigns and they are not exposed to these campaigns. Also, their knowledge of this disease is low and the medical practitioners serve as their major source of information. Those that are awareof the campaigns agreed that the campaigns have influence their practice on how to prevent, detect and treat prostate cancer.
  2. In addition to the above, most of the men do not know that prostate cancer is a disease that kills; and can only be treated at its initial or early stage if detected on time. Those that are aware of the campaigns also acknowledged that before the campaigns on prostate cancer, they have little or no knowledge of the disease.
  3. The issue of the disease having link with genes remains a subject that most of the men fail to accept, however genetic testing is still quite new to some of the men in the south-eastern Nigeria. The few that understand the relationship between genetics as a risk factor in the cause of prostate cancer agreed to genetic testing.
  4. Also, the attitudes of underestimating and overestimating risks of prostate cancer are influenced by high or low levels of information acquired on the subject. However, their attitude towards the practice of preventive measures and the belief that, they are not susceptible to the disease seems to be low.

5.3 Recommendation

Recommendation on the basis of findings. The researcher made the following recommendation with the belief that when studied and applied, would help to increase the standard already at hand. The researcher recommends that:

  1. That awareness campaigns should be well structured to sufficiently address the negative attitudes of the men in south-eastern Nigeria on prostate cancer.
  2. Also, prevention of prostate cancer should be emphasized during subsequent campaigns paying serious attention on the causes of prostate cancer and how they can be prevented and treated at its early stage.
  3. Also in line with The World Cancer Report this study also recommended that emphasis on the potential of early detection, treatment and palliative care should be taken serious by those in charge of the campaigns. Efforts to achieve earlier diagnosis should be taken to both the rural and urban parts of the country.
  4. The study also, recommends that campaign planners, should lower the age for screening so that early detection and prevention at the hospital is enhanced. However, if screening is done at an earlier age, early treatment could better reduce the risk of early death.
  5. Dietary recommendation also requires close coordination by campaign planners with programs for the prevention of other related non-communicable diseases. Policy makers should therefore make do with the latest information provided by the independent Expert Report on diet and chronic disease, released in March 2003 by WHO and FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) in order to know which information willbe most appropriate for them to base advice on prevention of cancer and other related diseases.
  6. The study also recommends a healthy lifestyle as the best form of prevention. Frequent consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity can make a difference. Finally, further research works on prostate cancer can be carried out to cover the entire nation.

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