The Radio Broadcast And Its Impact On Covid 19 Vaccination Campaign In Cross River State
This study was carried out on radio broadcast and its impact on covid19 vaccination campaign in Cross River State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of journalist in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 57 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. The hypotheses was tested using Chi-square Statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that the relevance of radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination campaign includes: It created public awareness about covid-19,it created enlighten the public about the covid-19 vaccine, it created public orientation on the need to get vaccinated, it helped the public in accessing the covid 19 vaccine. The study reveals that radio broadcast is an effective tool for covid 19 vaccination campaign. Furthermore, the information spread by radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination are accurate. Therefore, it is recommended that radio stations need to recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize misinformation in Nigeria and across Africa thus this should enhance their effectiveness in performing their social responsibility of sensitizing the masses on the Covid-19 vaccination. And Government and private sector support are also necessary for radio to function effectively in Africa. Sadly, many radio stations are underfunded.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
The globe has been surprised by a new Coronavirus outbreak, which first appeared at the end of December 2019 and is now known as COVID-19 (Basch, MacLean 2019). As of recent, the mortality rate of COVID 19 has increased significantly. The emergence of covid 19 vaccines came as a huge relief to the world. However, the COVID-19 vaccine has been met with both excitement and trepidation. A significant portion of the world population remains skeptical of a COVID-19 vaccine, with a high percentage unsure if they will be vaccinated and a lower percentage unlikely to do so by the end of 2020. The level of vaccine hesitancy in anticipation of vaccine approval by regulatory agencies has increased now that the vaccine is available, particularly for high priority health care workers and vulnerable populations. COVID-19 control is heavily reliant on its uptake(Krause, Freiling 2020). As a result, the impact of public risk communication efforts on vaccine effectiveness, safety, and availability is critical to vaccine uptake. Furthermore, risk communication efforts can be carried out via a variety of information channels. The public’s perception of information channels and the channels used to receive information about COVID-19 and the vaccine will determine the likelihood of achieving satisfactory levels of vaccine uptake.
However, demonstrating that a COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective can only be a game changer if uptake is high enough to stop the virus’s spread. According to models with an 80 percent vaccine efficacy, the percentage of the population that needs to be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity (depending on factors such as the basic reproduction number, the duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and whether vaccines prevent transmission. (Krause, Freiling 2020) observed that current vaccination intentions are far from sufficient to achieve this aim. A sizable proportion of the worldwide population reports being hesitant to be immunized, and while vaccine hesitancy varies, it remains alarmingly high in many countriesi. As a result, despite recent improvements in some countries, rates of vaccination intention in most countries remain below the percentage required for herd immunity.
The media has played a significant role in the spread of covid 19 vaccine news. Misinformation about the vaccine circulated through the different forms of media, and it has gotten worse since the vaccination was introduced. For example, there have been widespread conspiracy theories that the virus was created as a government bioweapon and that it was caused by 5G cellular networks and that the vaccines are harmful to them. (Basch, MacLean 2019) discovered that low quality sources on COVID-19 that were unverified and appeared to promote misinformation were more frequently retweeted than those with high quality information linked to verifiable health authorities.
Radio broadcasts have impacted on the spread of vaccine information and are airing a variety of programming to raise awareness about the COVID-19 immunization and to combat misinformation (Hamel, Munana 2013) The programs include local immunization news, interviews, and vaccinators’ experiences, as well as others. Radio programs are receiving information on why the COVID-19 vaccine is important from a public health and socioeconomic standpoint, as well as who will be vaccinated first in the radio broadcast area, how the vaccine will be available, what to do after vaccination, and when Government instructions will be issued.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Radio broadcast has without doubt been very impactful on the spread of coronavirus and subsequently the emergence of vaccine. There have cases of misinformation about the vaccine spread on radio. Coronavirus vaccine has been known to save lives and this misinformation has greatly impacted on the efficient vaccine application (Hamel. Munana 2013).
Additionally, people living in the rural areas have not had access to the vaccines and most pointed to the fact they were not privy to the information of the existence of the vaccine and the schedule for vaccination. Is the radio really doing enough? Has the impacts of radio broadcasting of the vaccine been felt?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to assess the radio broadcast and its impact on covid 19 vaccination campaign. Other objective of this study are:
- To examine the relevance of radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination campaign.
- To examine the effectiveness of radio broadcast on COVID 19 vaccination campaign
- To examine the level of accuracy of information spread by radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination.
1.4 Research Questions
The study will be guided by the following questions;
- How relevance is radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination campaign?
- Is radio broadcast an effective tool for covid 19 vaccination campaign?
- Are the information spread by radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination accurate?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
H0: Radio broadcast have no impact on covid 19 vaccination campaign.
Ha: Radio broadcast has an impact on covid 19 vaccination campaign
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the medical field as it will help them know and make effective policies that will aid in the spread of accurate information about covid 19 vaccine. It will also be of great benefit to the media world as the results will show how impactful media is on the spread of broadcast messages about covid 19 vacciantions.
Finally, this study will serve as existing material for further research and future reference.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will assess radio broadcast and its impact on covid 19 vaccination campaign. It will also examine the relevance of radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination campaign and will also examine the effectiveness of radio broadcast on COVID 19 vaccination campaign.
The respondents for this study will be obtained from Cross River Broadcasting Corporation.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).
1.9 Definition of Terms
Messages broadcasted through radio
A marked effect or influence
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease.
An organized course of action to achieve a goal.
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter (chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the study on radio broadcast and its impact on covid19 vaccination campaign in Cross River State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was radio broadcast and its impact on covid 19 vaccination campaign in Cross River State.
The study is was specifically carried out to examine the relevance of radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination campaign, examine the effectiveness of radio broadcast on COVID 19 vaccination campaign, and examine the level of accuracy of information spread by radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were journalist in Cross River Broadcasting Corporation.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;
- The relevance of radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination campaign includes: It created public awareness about covid-19,it created enlighten the public about the covid-19 vaccine, it created public orientation on the need to get vaccinated, it helped the public in accessing the covid 19 vaccine.
- Radio broadcast is an effective tool for covid 19 vaccination campaign.
- The information spread by radio broadcast on covid 19 vaccination are accurate.
Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:
- Radio stations need to recognize that they have an important role to play in the fight to minimize misinformation in Nigeria and across Africa thus this should enhance their effectiveness in performing their social responsibility of sensitizing the masses on the Covid-19 vaccination.
- News and program content need to be carefully sourced and tailored to ensure that listeners in cities and at the grassroots, receive updated and accurate information about COVID-19 Vaccine as this can persuade or affect their choice of taking the vaccination and more so comply to the safety preventive measures.
- Government and private sector support are also necessary for radio to function effectively in Africa. Sadly, many radio stations are underfunded.
- Civic societies should endeavor to collaborate with knowledgeable healthcare workers to go on outreach and enlighten the masses on the need to take the vaccine.
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