Knowledge And Utilization Of Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State

Project and Seminar Material for Nursing (Science)

Knowledge And Utilization Of Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State


Abstract


The study determined the Knowledge And Utilization Of Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State. The Specific objectives of the study were; to determine the knowledge, to identify the attitude and determining practices of Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers. The study was conducted through a descriptive cross sectional study design qualitative in nature. The findings showed how lack of knowledge among women has hindered the practice of breast cancer screening they included; failing to do it in the right time, lack of self confidence in their ability to perform breast cancer screening correctly and embarrassment associated with manipulation of the breasts. The findings revealed that the negative attitudes among respondents towards breast cancer screening included; fear of detecting breast cancer and BSE is an embarrassment, some women thought they did not have any problem in their breasts therefore no need of breast cancer screening. The findings of the study recommended the benefits of the practices among Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State included; Diagnosis of breast cancer at an earlier stage, and being an inexpensive method of breast cancer screening.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Nursing Implication
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Globally cancer is among the top leading cause of death. It was estimated that 8.8 million people died of cancer in 2015 and prevalence estimates for 2012 show that there were 32.6 million people alive who had had a cancer diagnosed in the previous five years. Approximately 70% of deaths from cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries (WHO 2017). Among women, breast cancer (BC) is the most common cause of mortality accounting for 16% of cancer deaths in adult women (Ferlay et al. 2010).

According to Mary Kaye (2016) “Cancer is a group of diseases that cause cells in the body to change and grow out of control. Most types of cancer cells eventually form a lump or mass called a tumor, and are named after the part of the body where the tumor originates”. Cancer of the breast starts in the breast tissues which are consist of lobules, ducts and glands which are attached to breast nipples and the remaining parts are made up of connective, lymphatic and fatty tissues, (George, 2016). Knowledge and practice to the breast cancer prevention and early detection plays a significant part in decreasing morbidity of the illness.

Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women worldwide. Diagnosis of breast cancer at an earlier stage allows women more treatment choices and greater chance of long term survival. In a bid to reduce the incidence of mortality from breast cancer there is need for an effective screening program. Empowering all health workers and creating awareness amongst them could go a long way in enhancing the screening program for breast cancer. Prevention or identification of breast cancer at an early stage is of paramount importance in saving lives as well as improving the quality of life. Breast cancer lends itself to early detection and subsequent early treatment if women use early detection measures, (Anderson, 2015). Breast cancer screening is one method of primary level of prevention of breast cancer, which should be adopted by all females started with age of 20 years and above. It does not improve mortality but decreases morbidity. The aim of the study is to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of Breast cancer screening among women aged 18-45 years at KIU.TH.

Screening for early detection and diagnosis of diseases and health conditions is an important public health principle. breast cancer screening is a process whereby women examine their breasts regularly to detect any abnormal swelling or lumps in order to seek prompt medical attention. The procedure though simple, non-invasive and requiring little time, can only be practiced with the right attitude to sustain it and achieve the desired goal, of early diagnosis and treatment before metastasis, which is a prerequisite for better outcome, (Christmas & Nicholas 2015).

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy affecting women, with more than one million cases occurring worldwide annually. In India, it is the second commonest cancer among females.

Though it can be detected early by self and clinical breast examination or mammography, in Uganda only 15% patients present in the localized stage; and 75% regional lymph nodes are already involved while 10% have distant spread at the time of reporting (Rajvir .B 2009).

This is due to lack of awareness and non-existent breast cancer screening programs. Early detection and prompt treatment offer the greatest chance of long term survival and Breast cancer screening (breast cancer screening) seems to be an important viable optional substitute for early detection of cancer (Ertem & Kocer, 2009).Hence by knowing the situation in our community we can plan for awareness Programs involving our medical students, interns and post graduates. The data is also useful for policy makers for planning screening programs.

The available and advisable method for breast cancer screening worldwide are self- breast Examination (SBE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammogram. However, in most of developing countries the routine screening mammography are often unavailable (Coughlin & Ekwueme, 2009). Therefore, it is important to empower women on the SBE as a primary tool in screening the breast cancer. American Cancer Society did recommendations on SBE as option breast awareness and for early detection of breast cancer. It was reported that women who practicing SBE regularly were presented more often with clinically early tumors and had shorter patient delay in presentation.
Doctors recommend having physical breast exams every two or three years in your 20s and 40s, and an annual exam if you are 50 years or older; however, self-examination at home can bridge the gap in between check-ins with your ob-gyn. That means you’ll be even more likely to detect breast cancer symptoms early, (Ertem & Kocer, 2009).
Here are the steps to perform a breast self-exam at home:

Look at your breasts in the mirror with your arms at your side. Monitor for changes in the size, shape, texture, and color of your breasts. (Remember, it’s totally normal to have breasts that are two different sizes or shapes.) Repeat this examination with your hands raised over your head, and with your hands on your hips, flexing your chest muscles.

Gently squeeze each nipple between your thumb and forefinger. No liquid should discharge (unless you are breastfeeding).

Lie down and do a physical examination. Raise one arm over your head and use the alternate hand to feel the breast. Use the pads of the three middle fingers and make dime-sized circular movements, covering every part of the breast and repeating with different levels of pressure. Repeat with the other breast (using the alternate hand).
Repeat the same physical examination while standing up. Repeat the procedure every after a month.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Screening for early detection of diseases is an important public health principle. Breast cancer screening is one of the vital screening techniques for early detection of breast disease and breast cancer, which is the commonest cancer in women. Women who receive personal instruction on Breast cancer screening from a health care professional demonstrate greater knowledge and confidence and are more likely to practice routine Breast cancer screening than those who become aware of the method from other sources. Nurses among other health care professional play a unique role in alerting the community about early detection of breast problems because they usually have the closest contacts with female patients?

Breast cancer has been considered as a major health problem in females, because of its high incidence in recent years. Breast cancer screening (SBE) has a role in early diagnosis and prevention of morbidity and mortality rate of breast cancer, promoting Women knowledge, capabilities and attitude are required in this regard.

In developing countries owing to resource crunch and diagnostic facilities being too costly, Breast cancer screening is an effective and economic preventive mode. Hence, early detection and screening by self-examination should be promoted.

It is on this background that this study on the knowledge, attitude, and practice of self- examination among women. The objective of this study is to inquire about the practice of Breast cancer prevention measures among women in Uganda since mammography is expensive and not readily available.


1.3 Objective of the Study

To determine the knowledge and attitude of student midwives towards Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers.

  1. To determine the knowledge on Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers.
  2. To identify the attitude of Students towards Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers.
  3. To determining practices for proper Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the knowledge on Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers?
  2. What is the attitude towards Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers?
  3. What are the practices for proper Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers?

1.5 Significance of the Study

There is need to create awareness about the importance of Breast cancer screening amongst women so as to improve this practice of in a bid to detect breast cancer at an early stage.

The study might motivate medical personnel to so that screening methods for breast cancer should be included in the curricula of all health professionals so as to empower them to take up the challenge of breast cancer detection through self-examination.

Medical doctors might be encouraged to pay more attention to clinical breast examination especially where there are identified risk factors.

The future researchers and educationalists might use the research as a basic of reference for secondary data.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study will only Knowledge And Utilization Of Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State. The primary cause of breast cancer will be looked into alongside risk factors after which, suggestions will be provided to women both those with breast cancer and those who do not have breast cancer.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

During the course of this study, the researcher was limited by availability of resources and materials linking Breast Cancer Prevention Measures Among Mothers.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Cancer:

Is a class of diseases characterized by out of control cell growth. These cells divide uncontrollably to form lumps or masses of tissues.

Breast Cancer:

This is the type of cancer that affects the breast part of women screening: This is the process of detecting cancer in women without signs or symptoms of breast cancer.

Attitude:

A settled way of feeling or thinking about something, typically reflected in a person’s behavior.

Clinical Breast Examination:

Is the physical examination done by a health care provider for example doctor, nurse or other medical staff.

Knowledge:

Facts, information and skills acquired by a person through experience or education.

Metastasis:

A medical term for cancer that spreads to a different part of the body from where it started.

Practices:

Performing an activity regularly in order to improve or maintain ones proficiency.

Self-Breast Examination:

Is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer involving a woman her self-looking at and feeling each breast for possible lumps, distortion or swelling.


1.9 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses and concludes the findings of the study. An attempt is further made to highlight recommendations.


5.2 Conclusion

The findings showed the reasons why lack of knowledge among among Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State has hindered them from practicing breast cancer screening as given by the respondents include; failing to do it in the right time, lack of self confidence in their ability to perform the technique correctly, embarrassment associated with manipulation of the breast, not knowing the procedures to be followed in examination, not knowing the necessity of examining the breasts and lack of information is a barrier to practice of breast cancer screening.

The findings revealed that the negative attitudes among among Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State as given by all the respondents include; fear of detecting breast cancer, breast cancer screening is an embarrassment, some women thought they did not have any problem in my breasts, so there is no reason to examine my breasts, breast cancer screening is difficult, and some women perceived they had a low risk of developing breast cancer.

The study found out that the positive attitude among among Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State as given by all the respondents include; it helps them to detect cancer at early age, it is a health practice among the women, inexpensive method of breast cancer screening, favors women with cultural attitudes that make them feel uncomfortable to receive information about breast cancer screening by male healthcare personnel and self-examination at home can bridge the gap in between check-ins with medical practitioners.


5.3 Recommendation.

The findings of the study recommended the practices for proper breast cancer screening among among Among Mothers Attending Child Welfare Clinic In Eleyele Comprehensive Health Center, Ile Ife Osun State include;

  1. Diagnosis of breast cancer at an earlier stage allows women more treatment choices and greater chance of long term survival
  2. Screening for early detection and diagnosis of diseases and health conditions is an important public health principle
  3. Women who examine their breasts should have their technique reviewed by their health care professionals regularly.
  4. The practice of breast cancer screening can help women to know the structure and composition of their normal breast thereby enhancing their sensitivity to detect any abnormality at the earliest time
  5. All female health professionals should adopt such preventive screening procedures and act as role models for the community.
  6. Screening methods for breast cancer should be included in the curricula of all health professionals so as to empower them to take up the challenge of breast cancer detection.

5.4 Nursing Implications

Nurses should always conduct health education talks to sensitize women on the benefits and practices of breast cancer screening for early diagnosis of breast cancer. All nurses should be welcoming, approachable, and non-judgmental in practice.


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